Coco is a dance from the states of Pernambuco, Paraiba and Alagoas in the north-east of Brazil, with various names, depending on each region – Coco de Roda, Coco do Sertão, Coco de Praia, Catolé, Toré, Coco de Umbigada, Coco de Desafio, etc. The Coco de Desafio is the only version that features men. The rest are for both sexes. From the Bantu African side comes the rhythm, based on the use of drums and shakers, and the refrain-verse format. From the native Brazilian side we have the group format, either a line or circle of people.
Again depending on the region, there are various names for its rhythms (Coco de Ganzá, Coco de Zambê and Coco de Mungonguê) and for the way it is sung (Coco Agalopado, Coco de Sétima and Coco de Embolada).
Various theories try to explain its origins. Some say it started in the quilombo dos Palmares, the settlements of runaway slaves in Alagoas. The ex-slaves used coconuts for food as well as creating bowls, spoons, sculptures, etc. While breaking the fruit some would sing while others danced. Others claim it origins with the sugar-cane workers. It reached its height of popularity as a dance during the 1950s, until replaced by samba and the Baião. Although popular throughout the year, it is generally performed at religious festivals, especially in the month of June.
The musical instruments are: Triangle, Ganzá rattle, Surdo drum, the small Zambê drum, the Zabumba bass drum, the Cuíca friction drum, the small wooden Alfaia drum, the Pandeiro tambourine and tamancos. These are sandals made of wood and leather that the dancers use, together with hand-claps, to beat out the rhythm (generally three strong steps with the right foot followed by a weaker one on the left).
Artists such as Flora Mourão, Jackson do Pandeiro, Lula Calixto, Bezerra da Silva, Selma do Coco, Lia de Itamaracá and Zé Neguinho do Coco have incorporated Coco into their repertoire.
Coco is also present in works by Alceu Valença, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Dominguinhos, Sivuca, Zé Ramalho, Renata Arruda, Elba Ramalho, Chico Science & Nação Zumbi, Otto, Silvério Pessoa, Comadre Fulorzinha, Escurinho, Issar França, Cascabulho, Alessandra Leão and Lenine.
The 2019 Jeonju International Sori Festival took place October 2-6 in Jeonju, a city located in southwestern South Korea. The festival is held in a exquisitely-designed, comfortable performing arts complex called Sori Arts Center of Jeoballuk-do that includes various indoor theaters and several outdoor stages.
The 2019 edition of the Jeonju International Sori Festival focused on wind instruments. Due to an approaching typhoon (that thankfully weakened), the outdoor events on October 2nd were cancelled. The official program started October 2nd with a grand gala at 7:30 p.m. at the elegant and restful Moak Hall with Wish on the Winds, featuring master Instrumentalists and singers from around the globe.
The show started with Mazurka on the Wind, a lively performance by the great Polish contemporary folk group Janusz Prusinowski Kompania, joined by wind instrumentalist Manu Sabate from Barcelona, Spain. Next came Sujeon Variations, another highlight, with the United Youth Wind orchestra of Jeollabuk-go. This was a magnificent group of 200 young school students playing a variation of Sujecheon (Korean court music) on wind and percussion instruments.
Sacred music was represented by the gorgeous vocals of Georgia’s Iberi Choir and the Buddhist ritual music of Jeonbuk Yeongsan Jakbeop Preservation Society, joined by organist Miyeon.
The Ethnic Innovation segment showcased two talented Taiwanese artists, suona master Tseng chien-yun and Chung Pei-yun. They were followed by The Songs of the Forest with bamboo flute virtuoso Won Janghyun and his students.
The opening show also included spectacular dance, represented by three diverse styles: flamenco from Spain performed by Spain-based Mexican dancer Karen Lugo, Korean traditional artist Cho Sehoon and belly-dancing by Dominika Suchecka.
The show ended with a wind instrument extravaganza conducted by musician and composer Park Jechun, Commissioner of the Jeonju International Sori Festival. The show highlighted various instrumentalists and ended in a freeform improvisation. The lineup included Kang Taehwan on saxophone; Won Janghyeon on bamboo flute; piri master Choi Gyeongman; Tibetan flutist Nawang Kechog; Janusz Pruzinowski; Manu Sabaté; and Anders Harberg.
On Thursday, October 3rd, I got to see a pansori performance for the first time. Pansori is a captivating traditional Korean art form that brings together poetry, storytelling and music. The format includes one singer/narrator (male or female) and a drummer that keeps a steady beat and engages with the singer with encouragement calls.
Pansori includes only 5 stories and fans known them well. I attended the Sugungga performance, featuring two renowned masters. As you can imagine, now knowing Korean is a barrier to understanding the nuances of the story. However, the festival provided a guidebook in Korean and English that helped follow the story. Additionally, this performance showed the texts in Korean and English projected on several walls.
The Sarungga story is very fun to follow. This performance included two masters. Lee Nancho and Lim Hyeonbin.
Later in the day, the Jeokbyeokga pansori was performed by Song Sunseop and Lee Jaram. The other three pansoris took place October 5th and 6th, featuring JoTongdal, Yu Taepyeongyang, Kim Yeongja, Choi Hyeonju, Kim Myeongsin and Jeong Sanghee.
The pansori tradition is carried forward by a new generation of performers. Five artists appeared in the Young Pansori Five Batangs set: Lee Sung-hyun, Kim Yulhee, Jeong Yunhyeong, Choi Jandi and Gwon Songhee.
There is a lot to see during the afternoon and evening. Some of the highlights on October 3, in addition to pansori, included a workshop/concert by the magnificent Georgian ensemble Iberi Choir; and Korean fusion group Tannemotion, winners of the 2013 KB Sori Award.
The most popular event that night by far in terms of audience was the Starlight K-pop ticketed show at the Open Air Theater. The performance included artists loved by all generations, including Korean rock stars BooHwal and pop singers Jeong Hunhee, Choi Seongsu, Hong Gyeongmin and Park Migyeong.
Later came an entertaining workshop by the Polish group Janusz Prusinowski Kompania followed by a concert by Polish act Masala Soundsystem, who delivered a mix of global sounds, electronics and ragga/rap.
One of the best evening concerts was the performance by Tuareg group Tamikrest, an enthralling southern Algeria-based desert blues band formed by Malian musicians and French band members
The final concert on October 3rd was by Tres Bonbon, a Korean Afropop band that fuses Asian melodies and African rhythms. The group includes Korean musicians Giwan Seong; Doyeon Kim; Haneul Kim; and Yunhee Choi; along with Amidou Balani Diabate from Burkina Faso.
October 4th started with several shows for children, included traditional Korean puppetry. There were also workshops by Swedish wind instrument virtuoso Anders Hagberg; Ensemble Selene, a band featuring members from Korea and Argentina; and various percussion workshops.
In the afternoon there were more percussion workshops and the continuation of the Young Pansori Five Batangs series. This time the setting was the relaxed Cypress Forest stage in the woods. The audience enjoyed the show sitting on benches, lawn chairs and resting on hammocks. Young master Jeong Yunhyeong performed the Jeokbyeokga pansori.
In the late afternoon, there was a spectacular show of nongak, Korean rural folk music performed by the drummers, percussionists and acrobatic dancers of Jeonjeup Nongak. The integrated ensemble includes men and women playing various types of drums and gongs led by a loud horn.
Ogando, another winner of an earlier edition of the Sori Frontier contest, performed at 6:00 p.m. It is an all-female Korean fusion group.
An evening highlight was the first episode of the Sacred Music Series at Yeonji Hall. The concert featured the marvelous Georgian ensemble Iberi Choir and the Korean Jeonbuk Yeongsan Jakbeop Preservation Society. The Iberi Choir delivered a beautiful set of songs from Georgia’s ancient Christian tradition along with ballads, legendary tales and lullabies. The Jeonbuk Yeongsan Jakbeop Preservation Society performed a charismatic traditional Buddhist ceremony to guide the souls of the departed to heaven.
Next came the Asia Sori Project 2019. It is an international artist residency program in Jeonju that brings together Asian musicians. The artists in 2019 included Sosorbaram Enkhtur (Mongolia) on morin khuur and khoomei; Enkhjin Oyuntsetseg (Mongolia) on bishguur; Duy Nguyen Quang (Vietnam) on dan nhi; Tho Nguyen (Vietnam) on dan tam thap luc; Vishwa Bharath (India) on urumi and parai; Zulfikar Rizki Ananda (Indonesia) on talempong and katindik; Eunyoung Jin on pansori(Korea); Jun-Young Noh (Korea) on percussion; Jihoon Kwon (Korea) on percussion. Jae-Hyo Chang: Music Director. Miyeon: Composer.
The show Song of Masters ‘Ways of Winds’ took place at 8:00 pm in Moak Hall. The program included Kang Taehwan on saxophone; Kang Sungwon on songs; Anders Hagberg on flute; Lee Changseon on large bamboo flute; Nawang Khechog on Tibetan flute; Yeo Mido on improvised dance; and Tseng Chien-yun on suona, saenghwang, zither.
Next came another performance by Janusz Prusinowski Kompania accompanied by Manu Sabaté.
The last show featured Akdan Gwangchil, a group that performs a modernized version of the music of Hwanghae-do (the western provinces of North Korea) combined with electronics.
The program on October 5th started with Janusz Prusinowski Kompania’s workshop in the Cypress Forest followed by a children’s theater event.
In the afternoon, French brass band Imperial Kikiristan entertained the public with a fun mix of Balkan and popular classics and humorous sketches targeting the audience, especially children.
The pansori series continued with Choi Jandi‘s Young Pansori Five Batangs Hyun Joo.
The excellent Sacred Music II series presented a set of western classical music works along with new works by Korean artists performed by renowned cellist Sung-won Yang & TIMF Ensemble. The second half introduced the Araetnyeok Suryukjae Preservation Society with a Buddhist ceremony from the Youngnam region that comforts the dead souls remaining on the land and in the water.
The Jeonbuk Nongak showcased the dazzling farmer’s folk music of Gochang Nongak.
Sanjo Night featured two wind instrument maestros, Choi Gyeongman on flute and Won Janghyeon on large bamboo flute at Moak Hall. They were joined by Yu Jisuk and Jang Munhee on vocals and Kim Gyuhyeong on drum.
The highly polished Modern Maori Quartet crooners presented a set of Maori classics. The group includes James Tito, Matariki Whatarau, Maaka Pohatu and Francis Kora.
The enthralling Tuareg sounds of Tamikrest returned for an additional live performance in the evening.
Sunday events started at 11:00 a.m. with a series of workshops by Jin Yun Kyong. Maori Quartet along with activities for children.
Brass band Imperial Kikiristan amused the outdoor audience one more and was followed by two pansori performances: Young Pansori Five Batangs with Gwon Songhee at the Cypress Forest and Pansori Five Batangs with Kim Myeongsin and Jeong Sanghee at Moak Hall.
Iri Nongak provided a dynamic show that included music and choreography.
Korean fusion band The Tune, winner of the 2014 Sori Award, delivered a great performance with a mix of traditional Korean sounds and musical instruments such as haegeum and drums combined with keyboards and vocals.
Next came Janusz Prusinowski Kompania with another set of beautiful contemporary Polish folk music.
The festival ended with the animated closing show called Rock and Sinawi, bringing together hard rock and sinawi (traditional Korean music). The stage featured a mix of traditional Korean and rock musicians, conducted by festival commissioner Park Jechun. Park is also drummer and he joined in on a second drum set for a few minutes, delivering one of the most spectacular moments of the show.
In terms of food, there are lots of options in the festival grounds and nearby, as well as in the hotels area, including the bibimbap (rice with sautéed and seasoned vegetable with chili sauce, available with or without meat), kimchi, bulgogi, various types of soups and noodles. The festival area also has several cafes where you can get some fod, coffee, tea and other beverages, and sweets.
While in Jeonju, a must see is Hanok Village. There, you will find traditional Korean buildings, gift stores, restaurants and temples.
You can get to Jeonju via high speed train or by bus, directly from the Seoul airport.
Special thanks to the staff at Jeonju Sori Festival, specially Joy, Han Ji-young, Park Je Chun and our interpreters Rachel and Rose Lee.
It’s difficult to know what the music of the ancient Celts sounded like. Historical and archaeological data indicates that the Celts used bronze horns, flutes and bells.
What we know as Celtic music today is in reality the traditional music developed relatively recently in several western European Atlantic regions that may have been inhabited by Celtic peoples about 2,000 years ago.
Current Celtic music is characterized by the use of various forms of bagpipes (likely introduced by the Romans), harps, fiddles, flutes and whistles, accordion and concertina, and frame drums. In the 1970s, Irish musicians pioneered the use of additional instruments such as the Greek bouzouki, the Spanish guitar, the American banjo and the Italian mandolin, and adapted them to Irish traditional music.
Recent Celtic music history
The great Celtic music upsurge took place in the 1970s thanks to various influential artists from Ireland, Scotland, Brittany (France), Galicia (Spain) and Wales.
Irish groups such as The Chieftains, The Bothy Band, Plantxy, Clannad and The Dubliners attracted worldwide attention with their innovative, beautifully-crafted arrangements of Irish folk music that were later adopted by colleagues in other Celtic countries and regions, as well as other folk music traditions.
Although many of the best known acts from the 1960s and 1970s disbanded, The Chieftains and Clannad carried on to develop highly successful long careers.
Breton musician Alan Stivell introduced the Celtic harp to large audiences. Two innovative bands, Diaouled ar Menez and Gwendal, also from Brittany, toured Europe extensively for two decades with its blend of Celtic music, jazz and rock.
In Galicia, singer and harp player Emilio Cao, the now legendary group Milladoiro, Doa, piper celebrity Carlos Núñez and the influential Traditional Music of the Municipal School of Arts and Trades of Vigo (currently known as the Municipal School of Traditional and Folk Music of Vigo) initiated the remarkable Galician Celtic music wave.
In the 1980s, a significant new act was formed, Luar na Lubre. This group has become one of the leading ensembles in the the Galician folk music scene.
A revival of traditional folk music and a renewed interest
in the use of its native Gaelic language took place in Wales in the 1970’s.
With the help of local media and record companies like Sain, artists who
represented the Welsh tradition and language finally got exposure.
One of the essential musicians in Wales is Robin Huw Bowen, a master of the triple harp. He researched the music and methods of the old Welsh harpers by studying their old manuscripts. He has performed widely throughout the world, as a soloist and also as a member of the Welsh folk groups Mabsant and Cusan Tân.
The best known Gaelic-language singer is Siân James. Aside from her solo career, James also performed with dub reggae and rock bands.
On the traditional folk scene, Calennig’s lively dance music attracts attention. The band, formed in 1978, was led by Pat Smith and Mick Tems. Their material includes Welsh, Galician and Breton tunes. The 2019 lineup featured founder Pat Smith on concertina, Ned Clamp on guitar, Jem Randles on bass guitar, and virtuoso fiddler Iolo Jones.
Other Welsh folk highlights include singer Julie Murphy, Heather Jones and Hin Deg. An exciting group in the contemporary folk style is Carreg Lafar, formed in 1993.
One of the finest Celtic roots acts was Jamie Smith’s Mabon, led by accordion maestro Jamie Smith. The group disbanded in 2019.
Thanks to the proliferation of Inter-Celtic festivals since the 1970s, musicians from Brittany, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Galicia, Asturias, the USA, Canada and other locations, have exchanged tunes, musical instruments and participated in mutual recordings.
Cwlwm Celtaidd in Wales celebrates the music from Ireland, Scotland, Isle of Man, Cornwall, Brittany and Wales.
Celtic Music Today
The major European centers of Celtic music today are Ireland, Scotland, Brittany (France), Galicia (Spain), Asturias (Spain) and Wales (UK). Other smaller regions with a strong Celtic music heritage are: Cornwall (UK), Northumbria (UK), Tras-os-Montes (Portugal) and the Isle of Man (UK).
Outside Europe, the music from the Irish, Scottish and Galician diaspora has found a comfortable home in eastern Canada, the United States of America, and to a lesser extent Argentina and Australia.
The Celtic music artists recovered the hurdy gurdy in Brittany and Galicia, the Celtic harp in Brittany and Scotland, and a newfound respect for the bagpipe, including the uilleann pipe, Highland pipe, border pipe, Scottish smallpipe, gaita gallega, gaita asturiana, gaita de fole and binioù.
The 1995 hit Sleepy Maggie by fiddler Ashley MacIsaac :
Piracy, consolidation, streaming and other factors have led to the demise and consolidation of many of the great Celtic music record labels of the past.
Brief History of the Celts
Ancient Greek historians, like Herodotus (400 BC) and Hecataeus of Miletus (500 BC), wrote about the Keltoi, a group of Iron Age “barbarian” tribes with a common language and culture that inhabited vast territories of Europe. The Keltoi’s dominion stretched from Ireland and the western Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) in the west to Bohemia (Czech Republic), Bavaria (Germany) and Austria in the east.
The Celts were a mixture of western Indo-European peoples who created vivid ornamental art and spoke a language described by the Romans as Celtic. Their social power structure included warlords and priests known as druids. They lived in hill towns made to defend populated areas from other warring Celtic tribes. With the arrival of the Roman Empire, Celtic civilization nearly disappeared. Most of western Europe, except Ireland, was Romanized.
In 1960s Peru, a new style of music was born: Peruvian cumbia, also known as “chicha”. Tropical genres such as Dominican merengue, Cuban guaracha and rumba, and Colombian cumbia mixed with 1960s psychedelic rock, while electric guitars reinterpreted folk melodies and traditions from the Andes and the Amazonian jungle, in a musical representation of the exodus from rural areas to Lima and other big cities in Peru.
The roots of chicha go back to mid-1950s Peru. Mambo was gradually replaced by preferences for other rhythms like merengue, guaguancó, cha cha cha, joropo, guaracha, rumba and cumbia, which timidly started to sound during these years. In Lima, it was the golden age of great orchestras and music ensembles which were capable of playing swing and jazz, but especially the diverse tropical variants flooding the market. The most successful of all, La Sonora de Lucho Macedo, released in 1965 an LP consisting exclusively of cumbia.
Around this time, the successful folklore group Los Pacharacos released the album “Los ídolos del pueblo”, which included a cumbia song in the middle of the medley of huaynos, waltzes and polkas. The marriage between folklore and cumbia had taken place.
Peruvian groups preserved the fusion of foxtrot and mambo rhythms along with huayno and cumbia in their music. That feeling would be the basis for the success of such unorthodox and unclassifiable songs as ‘La chichera’ or ‘Petipan’. The recording in 1965 of these two songs by Los Demonios del Mantaro on a seminal 45 rpm for the Sono Radio label was the jumping off point for the birth of cumbia andina, also called “chicha” precisely for this song, which is dedicated to a vendor of the well-known Andean beverage.
The electric shock of rock guitars entered the world of cumbia in 1968. The cause of such hybridization was Enrique Delgado Montes, regarded as the genre’s godfather. He did it, as part of his band Los Destellos, on a 45 r.p.m. (‘El avispón’ / ‘La malvada’) and an eponymous LP. His songs constituted the most surprising musical fusions and amalgams of the time: whether they merged Cuban music and psychedelia, explored the sounds of the Andes or Amazonian music, combined the amplified Creole guitar with huayno melodies or abused fuzz tones and distortion pedals with enormous strength.
The metamorphosis of cumbia turned it into a genre that seemed to voraciously cannibalize acoustic traditions and modern technologies. There wasn’t an innovation that tropical guitarists didn’t add to their sound: delay, fuzz tone, overdrive, wah-wah, reverb, modulating effects typical of rock bands were assimilated into a stunning sonic cocktail.
In this context, cumbia reached the top of the charts in popularity. Cumbia replaced rock as the urban sound. The groups would slowly develop an ethnic sensibility inspired by native Shipibo (indigenous Amazonian tribe) motifs and an astonishing and bewitching sound that seemed to drink from all the mysteries, secrets and myths of the jungle.
Groups such as Los Hijos del Sol, Los Shapis, Los Mirlos and Los Destellos popularized chicha during the 1970s and 1980s. Although Colombian cumbia had a revival during the 1990s, chicha faded away until recently, when record collectors found Peruvian LPs that featured the familiar chicha formula, a mix of surf, psychedelia, Andean music and Afro-Caribbean beats.
Sonido Amazónico – Amazonian Chicha
In 2007, American record label Barbès Records released a 17-song compilation of psychedelic cumbia from Peru. That album, The Roots of Chicha, re-introduced chicha music to international audiences.
Peruvian band Los Wembler’s de Iquitos, who formed in 1968 in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, was responsible for some of the first hits of the psychedelic cumbia genre – including “Sonido Amazonico” and “Danza del Petrolero.” Los Wembler’s became extensively popular in the Peruvian Amazon and for a dozen years they toured the region, with ventures into neighboring Brazil and Colombia. In the mid-1980’s, however, touring mostly came to a stop and the band remained in Iquitos, playing mostly parties and local events.
Los Wembler’s De Iquitos discography includes Al Ritmo De Los Wembler’s (Odeon Del Peru, 1971); La Danza del Petrolero (Decibel, 1975), La Amenaza Verde (Decibel, 1975), El Encanto de la Selva (Decibel, 1976), Carapira (Decibel, 1976), Fiesta en la Selva (Sono Radio, 1977), Bailando Hasta el Amanecer (Sono Radio, 1978), Fiebre en la Selva (Sono Radio, 1978), El Sabor Tropical (Sono Radio, 1979), Estos Son…Los Famosos Wembler’s de Iquitos (Sono Radio, 1980), and Ikaro del Amor (Barbes Records, 2017).
With the rediscovery of chicha, there was renewed interest in Los Wembler’s, both in and outside of Peru. Los Wembler’s collaborated with Peruvian electro cumbia group Dengue Dengue Dengue, have been covered by Chicha Libre, La Chamba, Xixa and Firewater, been part of a number of documentaries and TV shows and inspired new bands across the Americas and Europe.
In 2010, The Roots of Chicha 2 was released, highlighting 11 bands and 16 tracks recorded from 1968 to 1981. It focuses on some lesser-known bands, and broadened its view to include some of the early Cuban-influenced groups that would play such a crucial role in the elaboration of the chicha sound. It introduced some of the later bands, such as Los Shapis, who played in the more Andean style that would eventually define chicha.
The Roots of Chicha 2 included essential chicha acts such as Grupo Celeste, which had a tremendous influence on the emergence of Mexican cumbia; Chacalon, the legendary “bad boy” of chicha; Ranil, the independent folk hero from Iquito; Manzanita; and Los Destellos, whose had a seminal role in the evolution of chicha.
Secret Stash Records reissued Los Destellos’ album Constelación in 2011.
In the United States, a band called Chicha Libre, gained notoriety with its mix of chicha, Latin rhythms and surf.
Peruvian band La Inédita, formed in 2010, created a new genre called chichamuffin, a mix of chicha with Jamaican beats, rock and electronica.
American band Xixa, from Tucson (Arizona), combined chicha with psychedelic rock and border music. Xixa’s debut EP, Shift and Shadow , came out in 2015 on Barbès Records.
Members of Austin’s Grupo Fantasma and Brownout formed Money Chicha. Their debut album, Echo En Mexico , came out in the United States in 2016 on the Vampisoul label.
Garifuna is a unique culture based on the Caribbean coast of Central America (Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras) that blends elements of West African and Native Caribbean heritage.
The Garifuna people originated when two large Dutch ships, filled with a delivery of West African slaves, sunk off the coast of the Caribbean island of St. Vincent in 1635. Half of the Africans survived and intermingled with the indigenous Caribs of the region, creating a new hybrid culture.
Fiercely independent, the Garifuna community resisted French and British colonization, and were forcibly exiled to the Caribbean coast of Central America. Some were segregated and held onto their traditions and language, while others blended with the local predominant culture.
The Garifuna developed a unique culture that incorporates African traditions of music, dance, religious rites and ceremonies, Native American farming, hunting, and fishing techniques; and an African and Arawak influenced language.
Now living mainly along the Caribbean coast of the Central American countries of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, the Garifuna culture, recognized by UNESCO since March 2001 as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, displays many influences of its African heritage. This is evident when comparing their music with the indigenous music of the West African societies from which their ancestors originated.
The Garifuna style of music relies heavily on call and response patterns. These patterns are less overlapping than many traditional ones found in Africa, but nonetheless the Garifunas’ leader/chorus organization is very consistent with those of African styles. Garifuna music relies heavily on the drum, and in many instances their music is dictated by it.
The drums of the Garifuna are usually made of hardwoods that are uniformly shaped and carved out in the centers. The ends of the drums are covered with skins from the peccary, deer, or sheep. These drums are always played with the hands, and some drummers have been known to wrap metal wires around the drum heads to give them a snare-like sound. Some musicians accompany the drums with gourd shakers called sisira, and even instruments like the guitar, flute, and violin have been adopted from early French, English, and Spanish folk music, as well as Jamaican and Haitian Afro-Caribbean styles.
To the Garifuna, song and dances are an integral part of their culture. These song and dance styles display a wide range of subjects like work songs, social dances and ancestral traditions. A very popular dance style is called punta, which is usually performed at wakes, holidays and parties. This involves plenty of hip movements.
The Rainforest World Music Festival took place July 12-14, 2019 in Kuching, Malaysian Borneo. The location of the events was the familiar Sarawak Cultural Village in Kuching, the capital of Sarawak State.
The festival usually holds a tree-planting ceremony every year. In 2019 it was mangrove trees at Pantai Puteri, Santubong Village. This is a way to celebrate the spirit of the festival, which is held in Borneo, home to essential rainforests and diverse wildlife, including the orangutan, hornbill, proboscis monkeys, sun bears, gibbons and many other species.
There are various elements that stand out and make this festival unique. First, many of the festivalgoers are young. There is a mix of locals, Malaysians from others states and foreign tourists. Vietnamese musician Ngo Hong Quang pointed out to me that, in comparison, when he performs in the United States, the world music concertgoers are older. This brings up the issue of music education beyond pop culture, affordability and access to American venues.
Another distinctive component of the festival that catches your attention is the inclusion of Asian acts. In European and North American festivals, there is an abundance of African and North America/Europe-based acts. Asian artists are rare except for Tuvan or Mongolian throat singers, Indian classical artists and Japanese taiko drumming groups. At the Rainforest World Music Festival, you can enjoy artists from all corners of Asia. This year the programming included musicians from Bhutan, Mongolia, Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia.
Perhaps one of the most important effects of the Rainforest World Music Festival is that it serves as a platform that nurtures local talent. Although the festival has been highlighting veteran and pioneering local Sarawakian acts from the various communities in the past years, we are starting to see the fruits of this labor. There are promising young groups like the increasingly popular At Adau that is rooted in tradition and modernity as well.
Regarding this performance at this year’s Rainforest World Music Festival, At Adau‘s Meldrick Bob said: “We were truly honored to be part of Rainforest World Music Festival again for the third time and we did everything we could to deliver the best in our performance.
Every year, Rainforest World Music Festival consistently maintains its reputable standard of being one of the best world music festivals. For this year, there were more varieties in the festival programs which appealed to a wide range of age groups and interests. A highlight on the addition of the indigenous stage which showcased purely traditional music from different countries. Also, it’s good to mention how Rainforest World Music Festival is going green by providing water refill stations to reduce the use of plastic water bottles. So kudos for that!”
Indeed, the Rainforest World Music Festival implemented various greening initiatives, including the elimination of plastic water bottles and the installation of water stations to refill bottles.
Meldrick Bob shared At Adau’s plans for the near future: “In the near future, we’ll try to bring Borneo to the world by introducing our music on the European stage, hoping that the world will see Sarawak’s beauty through our music. As much as we can, we are also selling our music to the festival directors, agents or any interested parties to be more familiar with At Adau and hopefully expand from there.
Our next plan is to bring back those old, or we can say nearly extinct, traditional instruments such as the nose flute and kedirek, and many more to our new songs and now slowly putting some new material for the next album. We really hope that the new generation will be influenced by playing those traditional instruments to continue the legacy of our ancestors.”
The Rainforest World Music Festival has spread its roots outside Sarawak Cultural Village with an Emerging Bands stage at the Kuching Waterfront and performances at Damai Central shopping center, which is right across from Sarawak Cultural village.
The current format of the The Rainforest World Music Festival includes afternoon mini sessions at Dewan Lagenda, Iban Longhouse and Bidayuh Terraces; small capacity afternoon concerts at the Theatre Stage, the Big Tent and the Indigenous Stage; and large dimension outdoor concerts in the evening at the two larger stages: Jungle and Tree.
The thematic mini sessions bring together musicians who share a similar musical instrument or dance tradition. For example, wind instruments, dance workshops, plucked strings, percussion instruments, zithers, etc. During the mini sessions, the musicians demonstrate how to play their instruments and at the end, all the musicians join in to perform a jam session.
The local and regional emerging bands that appeared at the Big Teng were: Alunan Keroncong (Sarawak), Sayu Ateng (Sarawak), Barrock Ethnicity Band (Sarawak), Pinanak Sentah (Sarawak), Sanggalang (Sarawak), Bamboo Woods (Sabah), The Oriental Traditional Orchestra Kuching (Sarawak), Warisan Sape (Sarawak) and Raban Kenyalang (Sarawak).
The artists that performed at the Jungle Stage / Tree Stage during the evening included:
Friday: Iban Miring Ceremony (Sarawak), Spirit of the Hornbill ((Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo), Olga Cerpa y Mestisay (Canary Islands, Spain), Ballet Folclorico de Chile Bafochi (Rapa Nui-Easter Island/Chile), Rajery (Madagascar), Otava Yo (Russia), Suk Binie’ (Sarawak), and Kila (Ireland).
Saturday: Kemada (Sarawak), San Salvador (France), Ballet Folclorico de Chile Bafochi (Rapa Nui / Chile), Darmas (Malaysia), Macka B (UK/Jamaica), Trad.Attack! (Estonia) and La Chiva Gantiva (Colombia).
Sunday: Kila & OKI (Ireland/Japan), Duplessy & The Violins Of The World ft. Guo Gan (China, France, Mongolia, Sweden), At Adau (Sarawak), Mehdi Nassouli (Morocco) and Tabanka (Cape Verde).
You need to plan your own festival experience because you won’t be able to see all events. The overall highlights for me were the organic Celtic trance music of Irish band Kila, as Kila and also in a collaboration with Japanese artist Oki; the captivating Vietnamese fusion of Ha Noi Duo; Olga Cerpa y Mestisay, rooted in Canary Islands traditions with influences from Latin America and mainland Spain; the masterful Malagasy valiha of Rajery; the zany contemporary Russian folk of Otava Yo; and rising Sarawakian roots band At Adau.
Other high points: the exquisite transglobal fiddles of Duplessy & The Violins Of The World; the spellbinding Gnawa music of Mehdi Nassouli; the delightful Spanish and Sephardic-rooted music of Ana Alcaide and her ensemble; the Mongolian-Iranian virtuosity and mesmerizing throat singing of Sedaa; and the charming sounds of Mauravann from Mauritius.
“Without a doubt, the Rainforest World Music Festival is one of the best festivals in which I have participated,” said Ana Alcaide. “Its philosophy, organization, environment, makes artists enjoy our experience of sharing music and feel loved and valued. Coinciding with so many bands from around the planet makes this event unique, where exchange and learning naturally occur. The festival is a unique example of diversity and cultural tolerance, with an enormous amount of artistic and cultural proposals, all of them of the highest quality, and that encompass cultures from all over the world. Bravo for the Rainforest Music Festival!”
Netherlands-based Vietnamese musician Ngo Hong Quang of Ha Noi Duo also enjoyed the festival: “I have been chatting around to talk about this Festival with my friends in Holland and in Vietnam too. It was a very interesting, international, eco-friendly, high quality and crowded festival. These complements I like to send to Jun Lin and her staff. Actually I have never participated in any World Music Festival as big as this, wonderful vibes, great audiences, and very beautiful landscapes. Congratulations!”
Ngo added “I think me and Nguyen Le we had so good time there and myself, I really enjoyed some of the shows and musicianship. I think not only the musicians created the success but also enthusiastic listeners who know how to appreciate the inter-cultural shows that made the festival more attractive and meaningful.
I met some of the Vietnamese audiences and they teared in front of me because of the music I played and the way I blended the traditional vibes with modern jazzy music. It was great experience for me.
If there are more chances, I would go back to perform the Vietnamese traditional music show again next year or the year after that. Would be interesting!”
French guitarist Mathias Duplessy commented: “The festival was great for us, just missed a place where to jam and meet the others musicians at the hotel.”
The Rainforest World Music Festival also includes a sizable World Crafts Bazaar with local and regional crafts made by artisans. You can find all kinds of really cool goodies, including many unique items. I stumbled upon one of the key musicians in Sarawakian traditional music, Matthew Ngau. He was demonstrating the traditional lute of Sarawak, the sape.
In terms of food, options have gotten even better. The Sarawak Asia Kitchen and local fingers offers Sarawakian regional options, Malaysian, Thai, Chinese, Indonesian, Vietnamese and Japanese delicacies. There’s also Asian fusion options.
Sarawak Tourism Board (STB) strengthened its greening initiatives this year. The biggest effect among these initiatives was from discouraging the use of plastic bottled water. Approximately, 20,000 plastic bottles were saved. Festivalgoers brought their own empty bottles which they could fill from water dispensing stations supplied by Cuckoo.
If you are in the Sarawak area and want to experience other festivals, the Rainforest Fringe Festival is a prequel to the Rainforest World Music Festival and Borneo Jazz Festival, featuring music, art, crafts, film, photography, food, and the culture of Sarawak. The Borneo Jazz Festival takes place one week after the Rainforest World Music Festival in Miri, in northeastern Sarawak, near Brunei.
For non-music related activities while in Sarawak, visit the city of Kuching. Attractions include the Waterfront, the Main Bazaar, Chinatown, India Street, various temples, Fort Margherita, the old Court House, the Post Office and the Sarawak Museum.
Daytrips include visits to Bako National Park and visiting the orangutans at Semenggoh Nature Reserve.
To get to Kuching you can fly direct from Singapore, Brunei, and some parts of Indonesia or connecting through Kuala Lumpur.
There’s nothing unusual in an upcoming festival being announced as
the ‘best ever’. In recent years, the Rainforest World Music Festival (RWMF) has
proved to be bigger and better with each edition. Held in the picturesque
Sarawak Cultural Village (SCV) in Malaysian Borneo, the global gathering is as
innovative as it is unique. In July 2019, festival goers discovered exciting
new features within the established format.
JL Productions, with director Jun-Lin Yeoh at the helm, put together
another impressive line-up of artists. Cultures never before represented at
RWMF included Bhutan, Canary Islands, Mauritius, Nagaland (Northern India), West Kalimantan Dayaks, Estonia, Jamaica and the Ainu culture of Japan.
Crowds were also treated to collaborative cross-cultural groups: Sedaa (Iran/Mongolia) and Duplessy & the Violins of the World (France, Mongolia and Sweden, featuring Chinese erhu master Guo Gan).
Afternoon mini-sessions over the three day event mixed performers from various acts jamming, jigging and harmonizing together in improvised workshops. Themes ranged from frame drums to zithers, bamboo to Bhangra and Bollywood. At one, the resonant sound of blended voices floating from the Bidayuh longhouse beckoned listeners from across the tropical village site. Vocalists Mina Ripia (WAI) and Linzi Backbotte (Mauravann) also showcased their stunning voices at theatre shows, each telling stories from their New Zealand Maori and Mauritian heritages respectively.
Fronting their groups, both charismatic performers provided laughs with their relaxed banter. They also revealed raw emotion on stage during the intimate concerts, connecting with audiences. Introducing a song dedicated to a recently passed friend, Ripia – blinking away tears – was spontaneously comforted by her 11 year old son (cajon, percussion and rap vocals). The young band member touched the crowd with this quiet and tender act, further indicating an old and wise head on young shoulders.
Backbotte encouraged her audience to clap and sing along to Sega rhythms. But all sat transfixed during one piece dedicated to ancestors after hearing shocking truths of their treatment by those who enslaved them. Sometimes the Arts carry the sole voice of generations past. I’m eternally amazed by what I learn of our planet and its history and the resilience of its people.
The main events are the evening concerts on the outdoor Jungle and Tree stages. With shiny new state-of-the-art equipment courtesy of sponsor Yamaha, the peerless work of the returning sound, stage and lighting team ran seamlessly. Despite forecasts, the weather was idyllic. Record crowds meandered comfortably, from the craft village and food stalls to the well-attended wellness program.
Event partners Rainforest Fringe (with exhibitions in Kuching) and What About Kuching (WAK) expanded the festivities on offer. WAK hosted beachfront live music and stalls at Damai Central, a short stroll between Damai Beach Resort and the festival site. The Damai sunsets were also the biggest and best you could wish for.
New stages at SCV proved especially popular during the daytime. The Indigenous Stage warrants a bigger space in future. Curious punters overflowed lakeside, as representatives from Sarawak’s 27 local tribes demonstrated music, dance, traditional instruments and stunning apparel. The Big Tent showcased acts including upcoming local artists given the chance to hone their craft on the road to bigger things. Local hit group At Adau have opened the door to more young players fusing traditional and contemporary sounds.
The traditional RWMF finale brought all performers together onstage. Bouncing, dancing, singing and waving to the exultant fans, they stayed on stage to take group selfies with new friends and potential collaborators.
Members of Spirit of the Hornbill (Indonesia) were the last to
disperse into the balmy shadows of the night. Like so many on stage and off,
they were reluctant to leave the warm embrace of the Rainforest family.
Alongside the requisite Celtic, Latin and Islander music represented at most world music events, I discovered rhythms and melodies I’d never heard before. Since my first ‘Rainforest’ a decade ago, Sarawak’s iconic ‘lute’ the sapé has moved to the forefront of the event’s soundscape. It’s heartening to find ancient cultural forms rediscovered and relished by young players and audiences.
headline photo: Tabanka , courtesy of Sarawak Tourism Board
Contrary to popular opinion, Paul Simon was not the first musician to recognize the rich potential of fusing Western pop with Zulu tribal rhythms. An inquisitive young white South African musician literally and figuratively had his finger on the pulse years before the diminutive American married his quirky songs with township jive on what was to become his and one of the 1980s’ strongest-selling albums.
While still in his early teens, Johnny Clegg, who passed away on July 16, started exploring Zulu music on the streets of Johannesburg — defying the iniquitous and racist apartheid doctrine into the bargain — when the seminal Graceland album was nary a glint in Rhymin’ Simon’s eye.
Clegg went on to become a professor of
anthropology and one of South Africa’s highest-selling and best-known
international artists, with six million album sales to his credit. When I
interviewed him for Australia’s Rhythms magazine
back in 2012, the Grammy Award winner recalled with some clarity what initially
attracted him to indigenous culture and what fascinated him in particular about
“I was 14
and I was playing Celtic folk music and listening to folk-rock bands like
Steeleye Span, Fairport Convention and Jethro Tull when I discovered street
guitar music.” It was Clegg’s Eureka moment. “I was quite a shy kid, but I went up to a guy who was playing and asked
if he’d teach me. I saw that the guitar had been Africanised, basically
reconceptualized. There was no chords, just simple notes being played in a
stream of sound. In some instances, the strings had been changed around, and I
realised that this was a unique genre of guitar music and I wanted to play it.”
So he began to look and learn.
What was originally fascination started to take
the shape of a profession when he met Zulu musician Sipho Mchunu and they
became Juluka, the first prominent racially mixed South African act. “We began as a duo,” Clegg related. “Later on I started bringing Celtic and other
influences into the music and found a meeting point between Zulu street guitar
music and Western music, and that was the birth of this crossover band.”
Clegg and Mchunu put out their first album in 1979, long before there was a category called world music and some half-dozen years before Graceland was launched to mainstream acclaim and worldwide sales. They recorded with Ladysmith Black Mambazo, again well before Paul Simon utilized that group’s exquisite Zulu harmonies on ‘Homeless’ and ‘Diamonds on the Soles of Her Shoes’. “I was fluent in Zulu by then and we were singing Zulu and English on the same songs. We were mixing languages, we were mixing rhythms, styles and composition. Western music has rules of composition; it’s very linear. Zulu music is very cyclical. It was a very interesting challenge to overcome as a songwriter; it was fascinating developing solutions.”
Flying in the face of apartheid posed a greater
challenge. “Initially, we kept our day
jobs; we couldn’t make a living as a mixed race band,” Clegg asserts. He
later discovered a loophole in the law. “Apartheid
was only applicable to public venues. We could play at private venues, so we
performed in churches, peoples’ lounges, embassies, private schools and
university halls. We discovered there were pockets of platforms that we could
use. When we began to play in public, that’s when we started to get closed
down. It was really a kind of balancing act between those. There weren’t enough
security police to monitor what we were doing, so as long as you weren’t
playing the main centres, you managed to get a bunch of shows in.”
Juluka records received what was known as ‘restricted access’. “They would strike a nail through the vinyl on certain tracks,” he remembers. “There were four levels of censorship on radio: sexual, religious, racial and cultural.” Although their debut album, Universal Men, received little to no air play on state-owned radio, it became a word-of-mouth hit. Juluka were able to tour in Europe, where they earned international platinum and gold sales for albums such as 1982’s Scatterlings of Africa and 1984’s Stand Your Ground.
is the song that got me on to the world platform,” Clegg conceded. “It’s the song that launched my musical
career actually because by the fourth album I was teaching anthropology at
university. When that song became a hit, I said to the head of the department:
‘See ya — I’m off’. I left after it went to number one in France, Belgium and
Switzerland. It’s a song that’s worked very hard for me. It’s given me openings
in two different bands to secure music as a way of life.” ‘Scatterlings’
was also significant on another level. “The
song’s sentiments are about Africa being the birthplace of all mankind and that
from Africa humans scattered to the rest of the world. What it’s really saying
is that everybody is significant, not just us. The first humans left Africa
170,000 years ago and populated the planet.”
Despite his high-standing overseas, Clegg
received short shrift from the South African government. He was arrested
several times, initially as a 15-year-old back in the late ‘60s for entering a
black area without permission. “But I
wasn’t political,” he insisted. “I
was musical. Juluka wasn’t really a political band. We were a cultural activist
band. You were dealing with a far more basic issue — the right to sing another
man’s language, the right to share another man’s culture in a country that
forced cultural segregation. It’s a very complex issue this. South Africa was
racially and culturally segregated. The regime didn’t want blacks to unite, so
there was a divide and rule policy at a cultural level. Mixing languages was
taboo. We mixed languages and we mixed music and we mixed dance and we mixed
all these things.”
Savuka, which Clegg formed after Juluka was disbanded in 1986 when Mchunu left, was the band that in Clegg’s words “became political, more outspoken and clearly articulated”. Following the release of Savuka’s hard-hitting debut album Third World Child in 1987, its leader and other band members were arrested several times. Savuka concerts were routinely broken up and some of Clegg’s songs, such as ‘Asimbonanga’, which called for the release of Nelson Mandela, were banned by the regime. [In later years, the singer got to share stages with Mandela during a series of AIDS Awareness concerts, something he lists among his most cherished memories].
For several weeks in the 1980s, Third World Child and the follow-up album, Shadow Man, dominated the French charts. The band was so successful that Michael Jackson allegedly had to cancel a show in Lyon because it clashed with a Johnny Clegg and Savuka gig. Amusingly, a newspaper headline in France read: ‘WHITE MAN SINGING BLACK MUSIC OUT SELLS BLACK MAN SINGING WHITE MUSIC’. Clegg was at a loss to explain his huge following in France, where he is known as Le Zoulou Blanc (The White Zulu) and where in 1991 he was awarded a Chevalier des Arts et Lettres (Knight of Arts and Letters) by the French Government, other than to point out that the French are very open to music from other countries. “At that time on French radio you heard every kind of music imaginable. They are very culturally sophisticated and aware.”
2011 marked Clegg’s 30th anniversary as a
professional musician and he celebrated the milestone in style. “I got Juluka and Savuka back together and
all the people I could muster for three shows. We did a Johnny and Sipho duo
set, then we did Juluka, then we did Savuka. The show in Capetown was brilliant.”
Clegg said his career had been something of a
blur. “I toured between four and six
months every year. In the early days, I did nine months touring for years and
years.” He stopped performing in 1993. “I
went through a personal crisis with my marriage; one of the issues we
discovered was my extensive touring. I was spending too much time away from
home and my wife gave me an ultimatum. We had an agreement that my touring
would be limited.” While admitting that affected his profile and album
sales at a time when the world spotlight moved away from South Africa, he took
comfort from the fact that Juluka and Savuka were secure internationally. “I lived off the goodwill of those fans that
followed me in the ‘80s.”
Close to 60 when I talked to him, Clegg senior said he kept fit for the energetic Zulu dancing that became an integral part of his live shows by doing plenty of cardiovascular work and weights and most importantly, he stressed, “stretching for suppleness”. While he didn’t lecture at university any more, he still utilised his academic expertise. “My shows are accompanied with explanations, anecdotes and stories about the songs, which people like to hear. It adds a bit of layering to the songs.” Clegg spoke with authority. In what was perhaps a veiled reference to Paul Simon, he said: “I come from inside the tradition. I play Zulu concertina. I play Zulu guitar. I play maskanda music, I grew up in the tradition. I’m not raiding some foreign cultural entity and then constructing something out of it, I’m writing from inside the tradition.”
Johnny Clegg, whose Zulu name (‘Madabe’)
translates to ‘Big Ears’, told me his career had been a great journey. “The thing for me is having a dedicated group
of fans over the years who’ve brought their kids to my shows. The key is to have
people that want to grow with you as an artist. In the end, it’s about the
connection with an audience and maintaining that connection.”
August 16th to 18th, the lush island of Sado in Japan is filled with the sounds
of taiko drums, song and dance. The
Earth Celebration is Japan’s longest running music festival, a yearly event
which attracts music lovers from all across Japan and the world.
by the globetrotting taiko drum group
Kodo, for 32 years this huge drum festival has brought festival lovers to
butterfly-shaped Sado Island, just an hour or so by ferry from Niigata City in
For Kodo members, taiko is a way of life. The drummers spend two thirds of the year touring, performing in packed concerts both in Japan and overseas. The rest of the time the troupe lives on Sado, practicing and developing new works that show just how powerful these deceptively simple looking drums can be. Their dedication to their craft comes through in each performance, coaxing nuances from massive drums that sometimes reach over one meter in diameter.
However, Earth Celebration
goes beyond taiko, as each year the
group invites musicians from around the world to perform at the Harbour Market
stage, bringing together artists of all stripes through the power of music. For
the 2019 edition the Kodo drummers will be collaborating with the acclaimed
Korean percussion ensemble Kim Duk-Soo SamulNori.
Besides music, visitors can
also enjoy light up events at the former Sado Gold Mine, watch movies at the
outdoor Hello Japan Sea Cinema, sample tasty food at Harbour Market, and catch
fringe events at Kisaki Shrine.
If you plan to check out this music festival, try to arrive one day early to catch a firelight performance of Noh theater on one of the island’s ancient open-air stages. The plays harken back to the Japan of yore, the performer’s carved masks and otherworldly chants made even more dramatic by the flickering lanterns.
Kids are welcome at most of
the events, and there are plenty of workshops and other activities to do on
Sado to teach and entertain young music lovers.
Heading to Japan and want to know more about how to get to Sado and book tickets for Earth Celebration? The festival website has all the information you need to plan your trip!
Music is universal and is the life line of sublime expression.
Carnatic music is basically an application in complete expansion within given restrictions. An artistic uniqueness is created within a grammatical limits. Rules of grammar in Carnatic music have not prevented the great writers from producing creative, beautiful works of literature.
A sentence in any language is a collection of words that conveys sense or meaning and is formed according to the logic of grammar. Similarly, Sruti and Laya are the main grammatical aspects which makes music melodic. Sruti and Laya are like mother and father in Carnatic music.
Music gets the identity as art form with the imbibing of the highest values of Lakshaya and Lakshana. Lakshaya and Lakshana of art form are like Sruti and Smriti relationship of sacred Veda, Upanishad, Brahma sutra etc. Lakshana defines and establishes the form. Abstract nature compelled Lakshana formation for the ease and comfort of practitioners, teachers, students and performers and also for the connoisseurs and discerning listeners.
The Music of India is one of the oldest unbroken musical traditions in the world. It is said that the origins of this go back to the Vedas. During the Sangam literature, music and dance were the main attraction or entertainment among the mass. Legend has played significant part in shaping and promoting the role of music in Indian culture. Silappadikaram is the first and foremost a treatise on music. The Puranas were written to elucidate the truths preserved in the Vedas and present them in capsules and modules to the music aspirants.
There are 22 Srutis well
known in the Carnatic music arena. Creation of raga is made easy with these 22
Srutis and to differentiate one raga from another. Swara is an essential aspect
in a Varnam, Kriti, Keertana and other forms of music. Saptaswara is the universally known syllables
in music. Sa and Pa being Achala Swaras, out of 5 remaining Swaras, Ma has two
variety and other four i.e. Ri, Ga, Dha and Ni have 3 varieties each. Thus
there are 16 Swaras. Composition in
Carnatic music is required to follow prosodic order. In so far as Tala there are 10 Pranas known
as Tala Dasa Pranas. This gives detail characteristics of a Tala structure.
Music too has diversified into different genres. There are classical Music like Carnatic and Hindustani. Carnatic music is one of the few musical systems of the world blending a fine technical structure to a profound aesthetic value. It is a melodic system based on fundamental sounds known as Srutis, which form the basis for the definition of notes, known as Swaras. Particular sets of Swaras are used to construct melodies known as Ragas.
Each of the innumerable ragas of Carnatic music is defined by rules of usage of its note called Raga Lakshana including the permissible and forbidden manners of ascent, the Arohanam and descent, the Avarohanam, the aesthetics of transition between notes, the Gamakas and their relative importance. Shift of tonic is the process by which new Melas can be evolved.
Compositions in Carnatic
music possess multiple dimensions. The
aesthetic element refers to the melodic value extended by the raga and its
intensive usage with the lyrical aspect. The prosodic dimension describes the
technical or grammatical value associated with the poetic meter. The rhythmic
element captures the association of the Sahitya and prosody according to the Tala
to which a composition is set to. The grammatical aspects in Raga, Tala and
compositions are briefly discussed below:
aspects of raga alapana:
We are aware that the raga alapana has undergone
organized expansion from time to time. However the raga alapana paddhati now in
vogue is as per the Matanga’s raga paddhati. There are three main stages of
alapana- 1. Akshiptika (introduction) 2. Raga Vardhani (main content of
alapana) and 3. Sthayi and 4. Makarini , the concluding part of alapana.
In Akshiptika a succinct form of raga is presented by
the musician for making a clear identification of raga by the listeners.
Raga Vardhani which is the second stage of Alapana,
has 4 stages – Eduppu (commencement) and Muktayi (conclusion) for every stage
i.e. Vidari I-IV.
In the concluding part of Alapana the Arohana Sthayi
and Avarohana Sthayi is maintained and Sthayi Sanchara is done with
madhyamakala sanchara and in higher octave sanchara and finally concluding with
avorohana karma. In some ragas it is concluded in higher octave Sadjam also.
Again while analyzing the aspect of grammar in raga Alapana,
the exposition of a raga sung before a kriti is different from the one sung
before a Ragam, Tanam, Pallavi. In both
the situation the raga Swarupa has to be shown maintaining the grammatical
aspect of raga alapana. But in for a
Pallavi singing the raga Alapana is slightly expanded than singing before a Kriti.
This in itself is a full topic for discussion with proper examples. Its quiet
amusing that some raga give scope for elaborate exposition whereas some have
very little scope. It is observed that the present day artists have made a
research even to sing such ragas elaborately giving importance to each swara
sancharas within the permitted scope.
The variety of Tala as in Carnatic music is not found
in any other musical form. When we discuss about Tala it has 10 pranaas to be
followed. Tala is the strength for a composition. As a hand of clock moves according to a time
sequence (rhythm) so also in Tala which has a time frame, moves around set to the letters. We have
variety of Talas like Sapta Tala, 175 Talas, 108 Talas, Navasanthi Tala etc., each
has different parts and style of presentation.
Each Tala has angas- Anudrutham, Drutam, Lagu, Guru, Plutham
and Kakapadam. These are taught to the
students at the initial stages of learning. Alankaram lessons are very apt to explain
these aspects. But all these Angas are not used in a normal Tala. These are
more applicable for dance where every small variation can be explained with an
There are several ways of
doing a Tala. Here we count time, and several gestures are involved like
joining two hand, counting the fingers, lifting the hands up, turning right and
left etc. etc.
Yathi pattern is adopted
in the Kalpana Swaras by musicians which adds beauty to the composition and
also the Tala kattu. Similarly different Chaapu Talas have its own attraction
and added value to the composition.
of a composition
A composition has three parts: Padam, Prasam and
Padam refer to the
sentences in the composition. For e.g. Marukela ra O’Raghava in Jayanthasri
Ragam or Sri Saraswathi in Arabhi raga. The compositions are usually set to
Adi, Rupaka or chapu Talas.
Prasam – 3
kinds of Prasam – Adiprasam, Anuprasam and Antyaprasam. The pattern of words in
the sentences must be uniform. Prasam and Yati both are important.
In Adiprasam the second letter of the first word will
e.g. Seethapathe naa manasuna
Vaathathmaja dule chenda (Anupallavi)
Anuprasam : the words sound similar in the sentence.
e.g. Balakanakamaya chelasujanapari-
Balasri Rama Lola vidruta sara
In Antyaprasa there will be similar sound at the end
of the sentence.
kriti in Anandabhairavi –
Manasa Guru Guharoopam Bajare –re
Mayamaya Hrithithapam Thyajare- re
the word pattern in a composition. It will be similar to that of Anuprasam in
Similarly for a Pallavi, Vilomam, Anulomam and
Pratiloman should be maintained.
Thus it is seen that Carnatic music has grammatical
rules which needs to be followed. From
the basic lesson (Abhyasagana) to the kriti singing the set pattern of grammar
is required to be followed in order to give an esthetic sense and also to add
embellishment in rendering.
Your Connection to traditional and contemporary World Music including folk, roots and various types of global fusion