Zanzibar African Music Festival Sauti za Busara Announces First Set of Artists for 2019

Mokoomba

The highly influential African music festival Sauti za Busara has announced the first names of artists set to perform in 2019. The next edition will take place in Old Fort in Stone Town, Zanzibar (Tanzania) during February 7–10, 2019, with 44 performances on three stages.

The artists include Afrigo Band (Uganda); Mokoomba (Zimbabwe); Fid Q (Tanzania); Mkubwa na Wanawe Crew (Tanzania); Ifrikya Spirit (Algeria); Ithrene (Algeria); Fadhilee Itulya (Kenya); Tausi Women’s Taarab (Zanzibar / Tanzania); Rajab Suleiman & Kithara (Zanzibar / Tanzania); Hoba Hoba Spirit (Morocco); M’Toro Chamou (Mayotte / Reunion); Sofaz (Reunion); Tune Recreation Committee (South Africa); Jackie Akello (Uganda); Shamsi Music (Kenya); Dago Roots (Reunion); Trio Kazanchis +2 (Ethiopia / Switzerland); Damian Soul (Tanzania); S Kide & Wakupeti Band (Tanzania); Faith Mussa (Malawi); Lydol (Cameroon); Stone Town Rockerz (Zanzibar / Tanzania); Man Sulei Tara Jazz (Zanzibar / Tanzania); Wamwiduka Band (Tanzania); and Eli Maliki (Uganda).

More at www.busaramusic.org

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Artist Profiles: Kali

Kali

Kali (Jean-Marc Mournerville) lives in the hills of Martinique and espouses a philosophy that parallels Rastafarianism. He is one of the most popular roots artists from the French Antilles, sharing musical idioms with greats like Jean Claude Naimro (Kassav) and has been credited to influencing Dedé Saint Prix as well as innovative newcomers like Chris Combette. His musical career has been dedicated to the revival of Antillean music and exploring the roots of Zouk.

Circa 1980, Kassav introduced a fresh new Zouk sound via Paris by replacing the down trodden cadence with the rock influence of guitarist and rounder Jacob Desvarieux still keeping true to the gwo ka based rhythm. At that time much of the local pop music of Martinique and Guadeloupe had been greatly influenced by electronics, focusing on keeping up with dance floor beats all the while allowing Haitian compas and cadence beats to dominate the more traditional aspect of the popular music scene. The success of Zouk and of African music in general in the 70’s and 80’s rekindled an interest in the African heritage that contributed to the “Africanized French music” from Martinique. This revival helped Kali to bring his roots-based music closer to center stage helping to life Zouk into the international circuit.

Coupled with his solo career, Kali was one of the driving forces that inspired the band Pakatak that united a number of important musicians melting into the zouk kettle a heavy modern jazz influence. “Chouval Bwz 87” was an album that combined Latin Jazz and traditional percussionmembers included pianist Vasco and singers Timothy Herelle and Max Ramsay, along with Kali on his “magic banjo.” The success and vision of bands like Kassav and Pakatak helped to re-stimulate the local traditional music, thus igniting a spark that would later become a fire.

Kali’s discography mixes traditional chouval bwa and gwo ka rhythms with other Caribbean styles like biguine and reggae, as well as American funk and jazz. All these styles can be heard throughout “Francofaune” complimented with the trade mark sound of Kali’s banjo plunking out strong melody lines with style and finesse, never letting one influence wear out the other. He has grouped a wide range of dance-oriented styles to modernize traditional music creating a complex quality in his arrangements. His ability has been recognized by a wide range of international talent and is supported by performances with Manu Dibango, recordings with Rita Marley, and repeated invitations to perform at Peter Gabriel’s WOMAD Festival.

Over the years his lyrical content has always defended moral values consistently dealing with issues such as slavery, economic oppression, and racism. Still keeping true to the carnival feel of the traditional music, he never overlooks the predominant issues of social importance in Martinique and Guadeloupe.

Discography:

Racines I (Hibiscus Records, 1989)
Racines II (Hibiscus Records, 1990)
Kali Live Au New Morning (Epic, 1991)
Roots (Hibiscus Records, 1992)
Ile a Vendre (1993)
Lésé La Tè Tounen (Déclic, 1993)
Débranché ‎(Déclic, 1995)
Racines Noël III (1996)
Kali au New Morning (1998)
Franc-O-faune (Tinder Records, 1999)
Racines IV (Hibiscus Records, 2000)
Bèlè Boum (Bap, 2002)
Racines Caraibes Vol 5 ‎(Jean-Marc Monnerville, 2007)
Weapons of Mass Destruction (2007)
Le Trio (2010)

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Artist Profiles: Malavoi

Malavoi

Malavoi was at the foundation of Martinique’s music for over thirty years. In their early years, the sound of the group was much different than at the end of its career, but with their 1981 album “La Belle Epoque” Malavoi struck gold and introduced a unique sound that has been followed by numerous artists who went on to successful solo careers (Dedé Saint-Prix, Edith Lefel, Ralph Thamar).

At the time Malavoi was formed, a musical revolution was brewing in Martinique. Malavoi led a movement that was to set the stage for the Zouk explosion in the 1980s. They were eager to develop their music and add modern elements to it while maintaining strong connections to its roots. Their creativity was fueled by the work of other young artists who sought to reestablish Martinique as a source for great music. Eddy Louis, Fal Frett, and La Perfecta were other great up-and-coming groups from this time period.

Malavoi was not actually a Zouk band, in the sense that their music was much more rooted in the classic sounds of the past rather than their super-synthesized counterparts Kassav’. Malavoi’s sound was unique , however, since it focused on the use of the violin coupled with bouncing percussion. Malavoi’s sound came from the same legacy of Cuban charanga, which also utilizes violins and flutes over rootsy African-influenced percussion. Both styles spring from the union of turn-of-the century- European ballroom music with African percussion and rhythms. In both Cuba and Martinique, French waltzes, Spanish pasodobles and other sublime couple-dancing styles were all the rage in the late-1800s and early 1900s. It was only natural that local musicians would try to imitate the music of the elites, while interpreting the sounds in their own ways and inventing something entirely new.

At the time Malavoi was made of neighborhood pals rather than professionals who had fun playing music together. They created a band with four violins (classical), traditional rhythmic instruments and of course a piano. They enjoyed playing traditional music and entertaining audiences throughout the island. Their music was appreciated and there was popular demand for it.

In 1978 they reached a new level of professionalism and popular acceptance. Under the direction of Paul Rosine, the band’s pianist author and composer, they took a new orientation. They stopped playing at dances and worked on their original ideas.

“Shé Shé” was an important album in Malavoi’s career. In the years leading up to its release their projects had become watered-down. The death and departure of some of the groups key members, including founders Emmanuel Césaire and Paulo Rosine, had resulted in a lack of focus and their musical style seemed to have lost its direction. They had lost many of their fans and music critics found their style to be less aggressive and revolutionary than before. A new style called “zouk love” was sweeping the islands, and Malavoi desperately tried to keep up. Indeed, the whole future of Malavoi as a powerhouse of Caribbean music was in doubt.

“Shé Shé” is an album that tells a story. The title is a Creole adaptation of the French word “chercher” which in English means “searching.” Each song relates to the others, and the characters remain consistent throughout. It is a magical realist tale that reflects the dreamlike approach to the life led by the people of Martinique. Theirs is a world where the boundaries of fantasy and reality are less clear. Spirits coexist with the people on the island and events constantly occur that seem magical and surreal.

The tale of the album takes place in the dream of an elderly woman named Simeline who lives in a hillside neighborhood called “The Destined Place.” After finishing her morning chores, Simeline leans back in her rocking chair and begins to dream. She sees the bustling daily life of her fellow Martinicans. “Martinique’s a land where everyone loves music,” she thinks in her dream, “Life without music would be empty…Life is a hymn in a story.”

Simeline dreams on, remembering her youth when she was in love with a bus driver named Bolio who would eventually father her son Roger (nicknamed Roro) and her daughter Anasthasia. Roro is troubled and questions his past and his future, wondering where he would be today if he had made different choices. He is searching for meaning, direction, and identity…the main theme of the album.

The album tells stories of love, exile, and the loss of a culture as people move from the island to seek opportunities elsewhere. In the end, Roro’s granddaughter, Cassandra, who was born and raised in Paris decides to return to her homeland. She discovers a land of magic and beauty and in the process discovers herself.

It is a wonderful and complex story. Yet the music is so beautiful, you probably won’t even notice it. “Shé Shé”is the rarest of albums, one with a conscience and a message, a great work of art that also happens to be a great time. The ultimate assertion of the album is to forget your troubles, be true to yourself and eat, drink, and enjoy life.

Malavoi toured the US on a number of occasions, playing at S.O.B’s in New York and Central Park Summerstage as well as at festivals in New Orleans and Canada. Unlike their counterparts Kassav’, however, they remained relatively unknown in the United States.

Discography:

Mano” Cesaire Et La Formation “Malavoi” ‎(Célini Disques, 1969)
Lianes ‎(Hit Parade, 1974)
Malavoi (Disques Vacances, 1977)
Malavoi ‎(Disques Vacances, 1978)
Malavoi (Déclic Communication, 1982)
Malavoi (Déclic Communication, 1983)
Malavoi (‎Debs, 1984)
Malavoi ‎(Déclic Communication, 1985)
La Case A Lucie (Blue Silver, 1986)
La Filo (Déclic Communication, 1986)
Au Zenith (Bleu Caraïbes, 1987)
Jou Ouvé (Flarenasch, 1988)
Souch‘ (MBS, 1989)
Matebis (Déclic Communication, 1992)
La Belle Epoque (Hibiscus Records, 1992)
Matebis En Concert ‎(Déclic Communication, 1993)
Malavoi ‎(Déclic Communication, 1993)
An Maniman (Déclic Communication, 1994)
Shè Shé (Déclic Communication, 1996)
Marronnage (Déclic Communication, 1998)
Madjoumbé (3A Production, 1998)
Fléch Kann (Globe Style, 1999)

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Artist Profiles: Rokia Traore

Rokia Traore

Rokia Traore was born in 1974 and comes from Bamako. Though-steeped in tradition, Rokia Traore’s music is thoroughly integrated into a contemporary sound, thanks to her upbringing in a multicultural environment. Unlike many other Malian singers she does not come from the jali caste, but rather from the class sponsoring them.

Her father was a diplomat, and so she lived in many different places away from Mali: Algeria, Saudi Arabia, France, and Belgium. As a result, Rokia Traore has managed to integrate the atmospheres of great many places into her recordings. She grew up listening to all types of music, Algerian and Malian music, jazz, blues, reggae and afropop, and her original career choice was social sciences. Yet once she decided to become an artist instead, the great guitarist, singer and sound engineer Ali Farka Toure, who encouraged and recorded many of the upcoming, independent, and innovative Malian performers, became her mentor.

Rokia Traoré

Another big influence is Massembou Diallo. He used to play with Rokia’s father in an amateur band called Chiwa Band. He encouraged her to make music and composed Rokia’s first two pieces together with her.

Rokia was the winner of the African Discoveries award.

Discography:

Mouneïssa (Indigo, 1998)
Wanita (Indigo, 2000)
Bowmboï (Indigo, 2003)
Tchamantché (Indigo, 2008)
Beautiful Africa (Nonesuch, 2013)
Né So (Nonesuch, 2016)

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Artist Profiles: Salif Keita

Salif Keita

A master of West African rhythms and credited as one of the founders of the Afropop genre, Salif Keita is world renowned for his unforgettable live performances, soaring vocals and his emotionally-fueled songs.

Born in Mali, West Africa in 1949, Salif Keita comes from a noble family, and is a descendant of Sunjata Keita, who founded the Mali Empire in 1240. Salif Keita was the third of thirteen children born to Sina Keita, a landowner in the village of Djoliba, where he grew up, near Mali’s capital, Bamako.

Born albino in a land of blistering sun and heat, with limited eyesight and poor despite his social standing, his mother had to hide him to avoid the attacks of the superstitious crowds who called for his death. In addition to the problems of growing up as an albino, Keita found the opposition of his family to his interest in becoming a singer since the traditions of his ancestry excluded members of the nobility from becoming singers. Keita’s decision to become a musician broke an important taboo as in Mali as only the lower jeli class made its living from music.

In 1970, at the age of 18, Salif Keita left Djoliba for Bamako, where he spent time as a street musician and playing in bars. The first group that he worked with was the legendary Super Rail Band, a state-supported ensemble that was based at a Bamako railway station hotel, and served as an important launching pad for the careers of numerous West African musicians, including kora player and singer Mory Kante, and guitarist Kante Manfila.

In 1973, Salif Keita left the Rail Band, and with guitarist Kante Manfila he joined Les Ambassadeurs, which later became Les Ambassadeurs International. The new group developed the fusion between traditional music and western electric influences. 1977 saw Salif Keita being awarded the National Order of Guinea by Sekou Toure, the Guinean President. By that time, Salif Keita had also discovered American singers like Stevie Wonder, Ray Charles and Tina Turner. Their powerful way of singing and presence on stage taught Keita a lot about live performances.

Restricted by the limited opportunities and political climate in Mali, the group moved south and set up base in Abidjan in the Ivory Coast, where they performed and recorded successfully during the late 1970s. The epic 12 minute track “Mandjou”, that is featured on the Mansa of Mali album, was recorded live in Abidjan during this period.

In 1984 Les Ambassadeurs Internationales broke up, and Salif Keita moved to Paris, launching a career that saw him recording the classic Soro album in 1987, produced by Ibrahim Sylla.

A recording deal with Island Records followed, which resulted in the release of the album Ko-Yan in 1989, an album influenced by influential jazz fusion band Weather Report, and that led directly to Salif’s collaboration with Weather Report keyboardist, composer and arranger Joe Zawinul in 1990. With help from Carlos Santana, Wayne Shorter and a number of carefully picked musicians from Mali and France, Zawinul produced Amen, the album that made Salif the first African band leader to win a Grammy nomination.

The impressive Mansa of Mali retrospective was released in 1993 to coincide with Salif Keita’s tours of the United States, and Southern Africa. Recorded in Paris, New York and Bamako, his album, Papa, features special guests Vernon Reid (Living Color), Grace Jones and John Medeski, an album of the new African/American music, bringing together musicians from Mali and America.

On his 2002 album, Moffou, Salif Keita was joined by excellent musicians, including Cape Verdian diva Cesaria Evora on the track Yamore, guitar-hero Djeli Moussa Kouyaté from Guinea, and his old freind Kanté Manfila (acoustic guitar), both of them long-time companions of Salif.

Moffou is both the title of the album and the name of of the club that the singer opened in Bamako in 2002 to promote the West African music scene. In both cases, the choice of the name expresses his genuine desire to return to the roots of Mali.

Salif Keita

In April of 2004, Decca/Universal Music released Remixes from Moffou. The album expanded on the original recording of Moffou that took him on a tour around the world. He collaborated with some of the world’s finest producers and DJs, each bringing a unique contribution to the music, changing its tempo and atmosphere. A sound with a whole new dimension, the disc has traces of funk, house and drum-n-bass.Each song on Remixes is transformed – the songs were given a new face without distorting the delicate melodies that were originally written. The idea to remix the entire album was spawned from the feedback that was given from young music fans. They rushed out to buy “Yamore” (Keita’s duet with Cesaria Evora) and club kids went crazy for Marin Solveig’s remix of “Madan.” European FM radio stations also took notice of the remix which prompted Universal France to take a step further.

Patrick Votan, artistic director at Universal Jazz France explained, “Following the success of “Madan” we decided to ask electro artists who are close to the African scene such as Osunlade, Doctor L and Frederic Galliano to work on remixes of other tracks from the album. We also got major mainstream electro stars such as La Funk Mob (the defunct duo of Cassius Philippe Zdar and Boombass who got back together for the project), Charles Webster and Luciano on board the project in the hope that this would take the work of Salif Keita, a unique and original artist, to the ears of a new public.”

On M’Bemba (2006), the traditional instruments such as the ngoni lute played by Mama Sissoko, and the kora played by Toumani Diabate, evoke the memory of Salif Keita’s own ancestor, Sundiata Keita, the warrior king who founded the Manding Empire in the 13th century. Representing a genuine piece of family history, the new recording was the first time Salif’s foster-sisters joined him on record for the chorus of the title track. Also appearing on the album was dancehall/reggae great, Buju Banton, who lent his talents on the upbeat track “Ladji.”

The same talented group of musicians who performed on Moffou also joined Salif on M’Bemba, including Djeli Moussa Kouyate on guitar, Mino Cinellu on percussion, Salif’s early mentor, guitarist and arranger, Kante Manfila with Ousmane Kouyate also on guitar.

Keita aims to spread his message of hope through his music, through his actions, and through his words. “Happiness isn’t for tomorrow,” Keita said. “It’s not hypothetical; it starts here and now. . . . Nature has given us extraordinary things. . . . Let’s take advantage of the wonders of this continent at last – intelligently, in our own way, at our own rhythm, like responsible men proud of their inheritance. “Let’s build the country of our children, and stop taking pity on ourselves. Africa is also the joy of living, optimism, beauty, elegance, grace, poetry, softness, the sun and nature. Let’s be happy to its sons, and fight to build our happiness.”

Discography:

Dans L’Authenticité Vol.1, with Kante Manfila ‎(Badmos, 1979)
Dans l’Authenticité Vol. 2, with Kante Manfila ‎(Badmos, 1979)
Tounkan (Celluloid, 1981)
Salif Keita & Les Ambassadeurs Internationaux ‎(Badmos International Records, 1981)
Mandjou (Celluloid, 1984)
Soro (Mango, 1987)
Salif Keita & Mory Kante (Syllart Records, 1988)
Ko-Yan (Mango, 1989)
Amen (Mango, 1991)
L’Enfant Lion, soundtrack ‎(Mango, 1993)
Folon…The Past (Mango, 1995)
Sosie (MS Verdenshjørnet, 1996)
Seydou Bathily ‎(Sonodisc, 1997)
Papa (Metro Blue, 1999)
Moffou (Universal Music Jazz France, 2002)
The Lost Album Inédits (Cantos, 2005)
M’Bemba (Universal Music Jazz France, 2005)
La Différence (Universal Music France, 2009)
Talé (Universal Music France, 2012)

Videos

Salif Keita – World Music Portrait (Shanachie, 2004)

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Artist Profiles: Super Rail Band

Super Rail Band – Photo by Ellis Vener

The legendary band that has been an institution in Mali since the late 1960s, Super Rail Band, mixes traditional African instruments with electric guitars, led by the mesmerizing presence of singer and guitarist Djelimady Tounkara.

The Super Rail Band was born out of a Malian government subsidy in the 1950s for local groups to integrate indigenous folk traditions into their music, including Manding jeli songs and hunting songs, which the band mixed in with its Afro-Cuban dance rhythms, electric guitars and trap drums. For years, the band anchored a lively international scene at the dance bar operated by the Mali Rail Company at the railway station in Bamako, Mali’s capital.

The Super Rail Band served as an important launching pad for the careers of numerous West African musicians, including kora player and singer Mory Kante, and guitarist Kante Manfila. The Rail Band became legendary because it nurtured Mory Kante and Salif Keita. The two singers went on to solo fame. But even without its famous singers, Tounkara is one of the genre’s most charismatic performers.

Head of orchestra, saxophonist – Kabiné Kéïta
Percussionist – Bamba Dembélé
Arranger, guitar solo – Djéli Mady Tounkara
Vocals – Bamory Kouyaté, Modibo Diabaté, Abdoulaye Traoré
Drums – Maguett Diop
Tumba – Lassana Bagayogo
Guitar – Fanta Mady Kouyaté
Guitar – Foligni Kéïta
Saxophonist – Mamadou Ouédraogo

Discography:

Sunjata (Bärenreiter-Musicaphon, 1970)
Melodias Rail Band du Mali (Kouma, 1976)
Concert “Rail Band” du Mali (Kouma, 1976)
Orchestre du Buffet Hôtel de la Gare de Bamako (, 1977)
Affair Social (Sacodis, 1979)
New Dimensions in Rail Culture (Globestyle, 1985)
Super Rail Band de Bamako/ Djougouya Magni (Indigo, 1994)
Mansa (Indigo, 1996)
Kongo Sigui (Indigo, 2003)

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Artist Profiles: Tartit

Tartit

The men and women of Ensemble Tartit are Tuaregs residing in the Timbuktu and the Goundam region of the Niger River basin in Northern Mali. Tartit brought the music from the Tuaregs to an international audience.

Founded in 1995 in a refugee camp, Tartit was invited to perform at the Festival of Women’s Voices in Belgium that year. The group consists of five women and four men, singing and playing traditional instruments such as the tinde (drum), imzad (violin), and tehardant (lute). They later added a guitar to their instrumentation, to strengthen the sound of the ensemble.

Tartit’s repertoire consists of both traditional pieces (some more than a century old, respecting the forms of both words and music) and more recent compositions (created by improvising and taking inspiration from contemporary events to pay homage to men and women who serve their community).

The music of the Tuaregs emphasizes the voice (as soloist or chorus), with the occasional addition of instruments: the imzad (violin), teharden (lute) and tinde (drum).

Certain pieces played by Tartit mingle the sound of the teharden and the tinde with the voice of the male or female soloist, with a singer’s commentaries, and with a female chorus. These are pieces which might be heard on festive occasions such as marriages, children’s ceremonies, various tributes, and also in honor of a woman just divorced. Tuareg society is one of the few throughout Africa who allow women to choose their own husbands, and to chose to divorce them also if the marriage is not successful!

Members of Tartit are well-versed on their instruments, and in the musical traditions of their culture. The Tuareg social structure has traditionally had a great influence on their music: only women of the noble or the vassal tribes were permitted to play the imzad, the small one stringed fiddle that is the symbol of Tuareg society. But now any female musician can teach the instrument to any woman who so desires.

The imzad and the tinde are both instruments that are made from every day, utilitarian objects: a gourd and a mortar respectively, and they can once again be used for their normal functions after they have been used as musical instruments. Both Fadimata Walet Oumar (commonly called Disco among her family and friends, due to her love of music) and W. Mohamedoun Fadimata have been playing the tinde since they were quite young. Fadimata learned it from a servant woman, who would put Fadimata on her knee and tap out the rhythms.

The Kel Antessar (confederation of Tuaregs to which several members of Tartit belong) were among the first Tuaregs to use the teharden lute. The teharden is only played by men. Issa Amanou is one member of the group who was first trained on the teharden by his uncle Khama ag Akouka, one of the greatest experts on the instrument. Issa sees himself both as musician and raconteur. His words are cast in the present tense, yet evoke a glorious past recalling heroes in order to encourage the listener’s honor and bravery.

Discography:

Amazagh (Fonti Musicali, 1997)
Ichichila – Desert Blues From Malian Tuareg (Network Medien, 2000)
Abacabok (Crammed Discs, 2006)
Live from the Sahara, with Imrahan (Clermont Music, 2013)

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Artist Profiles: Tinariwen

Tinariwen

Tinariwen (originally Taghreft Tinariwen, or “edification of the lands”) became known for vocalizing the political plight of endangered nomads. Their music spoke to the Tuareg or Kel Tamashek, appealing for a political awakening of consciousness.

For a century, the tribes of the southern Sahara searched the barren landscape for every weapon available to maintain hope in the midst of ethnic cleansing and public executions. With the dawn of the 21st Century, the Kel Tamashek turned to the global circuit. Musicians are the modern warriors. And lyrics have changed to focus on suffering, love, and hope. A Tinariwen song claims, “If I could sing so that those in London could hear, then the whole world would hear my song.”

Although Tinariwen formed in 1982, they remained underground (Mali and Algeria banned the political lyrics) until the group moved to the Malian capital of Bamako in 1999. There, the ten members drew on a rebel rock sensibility, openly playing their passionate, trance-like Desert Blues. During the first eclipse (and first full moon) of the millennium, Tinariwen performed at The Festival in the Desert. Staged near the ancient ruins of Tamaradant, remote and distant from any visible life, the Festival was an effort to further goals of reconciliation, development, and international awareness.

Reporter Andy Morgan asserted that Tinariwen’s soulful music produced a magical effect on the crowd, causing “the young Tuaregs to stamp and dance with abandon in front of the stage. These men were heroes and mentors.” The ten band members are indeed the pride of the Tuareg people. Experiences in battle have created many legends. Kheddou is said to have received 17 bullet wounds after leading several raids, armed only with a guitar on his back and a Kalashnikov in his hands. Once, he was doused in gasoline, owing his life to a faulty lighter.

After witnessing his father’s murder at the hands of Malian soldiers, a drought forced Ibrahim to join a training camp in southern Libya, where Ghadaffi made promises to help the Tamashek cause. In between classes about revolution, Islamism, and guerrilla warfare, Ibrahim smoked cigarettes and played music with Hassan and Intayedan (who has since passed away). Upon hearing the music of Bob Marley, Bob Dylan, John Lennon, and Moroccan music for the first time, they discarded traditional instruments like the shepherd flute and tinde drum in favor of the electric guitar, bass, and drums. However, they continued the tradition of Assak, or the traditional male skills of poetic composition, and choral call-and-response. Soon they became musical revolutionaries, creating a new style of music called Tishoumaren, or simply guitar.

The songs of Tinariwen are petitions for political and cultural self-determination. They have become a point of identity for Tuareg youth. In a land void of laptops and TVs, cheap cassette recordings spread hope and resolve. Sick of the suffering caused by armed rebellion, the music of bands like Tinariwen is the new weapon of choice.

Discography:

Ténéré ‎(EMI, 1993)
The Radio Tisdas Sessions (Wayward Records/World Village, 2001)
Amassakoul (/World Village, 2003)
Aman Iman: Water Is Life (Independiente, 2006)
Imidiwan: Companions (World Village, 2009)
Tassili (V2, 2011)
Live At Bouffes Du Nord ‎(2011)
Emmaar (Anti-/Wedge, 2013)
Live In Paris (Anti-/Wedge, 2015)
Elwan (Epitaph, 2017)

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Artist Profiles: Vieux Farka Toure

Vieux Farka Toure – Photo by Thomas Arnbo

Growing up, Vieux played calabash (a unique-sounding dried gourd drum used in Mali) and other percussion, but his father didn’t want Vieux to face the same struggles he had as a musician, and discouraged him from following the same path. The Toure family comes from a noble lineage, in a land where musicians usually come from a musical caste.

Ali went against his own family’s societal role to become a musician and suffered as a result; first struggling to make a living at home in Mali, and then getting cheated by a French producer early in his career. The BBC reported that when he won his first Grammy award, Ali chose not to travel to the United States to collect his prize, saying: “I don’t know what a Grammy means but if someone has something for me, they can come and give it to me here in Niafunke, where I was singing when nobody knew me.”

Ali wanted his son to become a soldier. But Vieux secretly took up the guitar behind closed doors. He enrolled in the Arts Institute in Bamako, the same institution where Habib Koite and many other Malian musicians of note studied. When Ali realized Vieux was not going to give up on playing guitar, he enlisted his good friend Toumani Diabate as Vieux’s advisor.

When young North American producer Eric Herman of Modiba Productions expressed interest in recording Vieux he had to seek permission from Diabate, the senior Toure, and other community elders. Once Diabate and Toure heard Vieux’s initial recordings, they realized they had underestimated the younger Toure’s virtuosity. “Toumani looked shocked,” recalls Herman. “Vieux turned to me and said “See, nobody knows I can play music like this.” I knew” and it didn’t seem to be a secret that he is a really dynamic guitarist. But among the elders who he needed to be respectful of, he was humble and hiding it.”

Though my father initially resisted my playing music,” explained Vieux, “once he saw that it was truly my ambition and my calling, he was at my side; and he stayed there until the end.”

Discography:

Vieux Farka Touré ‎(World Village, 2006)
Vieux Farka Touré Remixed: UFOs Over Bamako (Modiba, 2007)
Fondo ‎(Six Degrees Records, 2009)
Live (Six Degrees Records, 2010)
The Secret ‎(Six Degrees Records, 2011)
Mon Pays (Six Degrees Records, 2013)
Touristes ‎(Six Degrees Records, 2015)
Samba (Six Degrees Records, 2017)

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Artist Profiles: Yacouba Sissoko

Yacouba Sissoko

Yacouba Sissoko is a master kora player from the jeli tradition. He was born in Kita, Mali. His grandfather, Samakoun Tounkara, began teaching Yacouba when he was 12 years old. They raised Yacouba and educated him in his jeli heritage and in many lessons about life. Yacouba attended the Institut National des Arts du Mali in Bamako. After his graduation, he played with artists like Taye and Oumou Sacko, Haja Soumano, Djallou Demba, Ami Koita, Fantani Koure, Kandia Kouyate and l’Ensemble Instrumental du Mali.

In 1993, Souleymane Koli, the leader of the Ensemble Koteba of Abidjan recruited him. Yacouba spend the next 5 years performing all over the world with this 45-piece band. He is in demand as one of the best kora players in the world, playing with Jazz, Latin and R &B bands as well as traditional African ceremonies. As leader of his own band, Siya, and member of the group Super Mande, Yacouba continues to record with many musicians, including the groups Source, Tamalalou and Fula Flute.

Discography:

KoraNYC, with Atropolis (Dutty Artz, 2015)

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