Showcase Deadline for Folk Alliance/Strictly Mundial Montreal Approaching

Maryland, USA – Monday, May 31st is the postmark deadline for applications
for the Folk Alliance showcase at the 17th Annual International Conference,
Montreal, February 24-27, 2005. It’s also the deadline for the early
consideration application for the Strictly Mundial showcases at the Montreal
Conference. Application forms for both, and further information on the two-track
process for this year, can be found at
. Or contact the Folk Alliance office at +1 301-588-8185 or and they will mail or fax you a
form.The organizers are also accepting showcase applications through a sponsor,
Sonicbids. Submit your EPK to either the Folk Alliance Showcase
or the Strictly Mundial showcase
via Sonicbids instead of mailing it in.
For an explanation of the two-track process for this year, check out this
website link
. For more information on the
Sonicbids process, visit their website at
. Utilizing Sonicbids qualifies you for a discount on their
6-month membership.

Program proposals due May 31st

Anyone interested in providing ideas for a program or workshop at the Montreal
conference can fill out the Program Proposal form. Click
here and then 
click on the Program Proposal Form on the left-hand menu and submit it to the

[Photo of Gjallarhorn at a previous edition of the Folk Alliance. © Angel


Dennis Bolten’s Mix of Blues, Americana and World Sounds

Dennis Bolten - Silk’s Groove
Dennis Bolten – Silk’s Groove
Dennis Bolten, a Montana based instrumentalist, released his new CD, Silk’s Groove, on May 1st. The album is a blend of fingerstyle guitar, banjo, dobro and ukulele.

Dennis played French horn and cello in school and guitar in various rock bands.
While in college, Lance Boyd’s jazz workshops and jazz theory classes instilled the energy, fun and playfulness that stay with Dennis’ writing today."Musicians who bring as much emotion to their work as technique influence me the most," Dennis says. "Players who are also writers inspire me. They
bring a desire and spark to their work. And it’s writing that continues to draw
me in
." He loves the quirky humor of Leo Kottke and Tin Hat Trio as much as
the simplicity and playfulness of Bill Frisell and Yann Tiersen.

"Silk’s Groove is a fresh mix of styles and instruments," Dennis Bolten comments on his new release. "The ukulele pieces were adapted from fingerstyle guitar compositions that I reduced to miniatures
to help pace the CD. The first banjo track, Rattlebones, is a blues piece while
the second, Mementos, was influenced by French street music. The guitar tracks
range from the classic subtlety of Ascension to the groove driven Thigh High to
the rattling blues of Hammerhead

Silk’s Groove samples are available today at and
Silk’s Groove


Putumayo Presents Nuevo Latino

Putumayo presents... Nuevo Latino
Putumayo presents… Nuevo Latino
New York, USA – Putumayo’s latest compilation is Nuevo Latino. In the 1990s, the term “Nuevo Latino” was coined to describe a new type of cuisine that blends ingredients from Latin America, Europe and the U.S. to create an exciting and original fusion. A similar blend has occurred in the music world. Young
artists from the Americas and beyond have used a stock of Latin rhythms, portions of alternative rock, reggae and electronica, spiced with local languages, rhythms and instruments to create a flavorful musical stew.

In this new Latin music, hints of Cuban son, Brazilian bossa nova, Argentinean tango, Colombian cumbia can be heard alongside touches of contemporary blues, loungy surf music, ragamuffin, trip-hop and hip-hop. The combination reflects the multicultural influences guiding a new generation of

Nuevo Latino features the Cuban soul of singer and songwriter Raul Paz, Mexican musical and cultural revolutionaries Los de Abajo and newcomer Federico Aubele, who presents subtle remixes of tango from his native Argentina. The inspired guitar of Spanish superstar Jarabe De Palo reveals the deep influence of blues on their music.

New York band Mosquitos offers a blend of pop and bossa nova.The multicultural background of London-based Kad Achouri is reflected in his music. French/Spanish singer Sergent Garcia’s mix of Cuban salsa, Jamaican reggae and ragamuffin have earned him worldwide fame.

Nuevo Latino also features Acida, an Argentinean husband and wife duo that perform loungy Latin music. Spanish singer songwriter Javier Álvarez, who was discovered singing in Madrid’s subways, is featured as our Colombian alternative rockers Aterciopelados. The collection is closed out by Kana, a French reggae band with a Spanish lead singer.

Buy Nuevo Latino


JPMorgan Chase Latino Cultural Festival at Queens Theatre in the Park, New York

Queens Theatre
Queens Theatre
Queens, New York, USA – The JPMorgan Chase Latino Cultural Festival—presented by Queens Theatre in the Park (QTP) and now in its eighth year—will take place from July 28 through August 8. it will feature an eclectic line-up of artists from the Spanish-speaking world, including Grupo de Danzas Folcloricas “Jocaycu” (Colombia),
a Rock en Español Night, Super Uba (Dominican
Sol y
(US), ‘Manolín: El Médico de la Salsa (Cuba/USA), Fusion Tango (Argentina/USA),
the film New York Spin by Pedro Valiente (Spain), an Open Mic Night for poets and
spoken word, a commissioned dance piece
by Producciones La Lágrima (Mexico), Palo Flamenco (Spain), Simón Diaz (Venezuela),
a Sesame Street Workshop,  Illapu (Chile), and .Johnny Pacheco (USA).The JPMorgan Chase Latino Cultural
Festival has become an international
springboard for the careers of artists
throughout Latin America and Spain.
Dozens of musicians, dancers, and actors
have made their USA or New York debut at
the Festival and become world renown
soon after. Festival organizers walk the
line between selecting performers with
name-recognition among the Queens Latino
community and those on the cutting edge
of contemporary performance.

Some of the artists we present are
well known abroad
,” says Festival
artistic director Claudia Norman. “The
funny thing is that newspapers from
Venezuela or Colombia will announce our
concert and people abroad will call
their relatives here in Queens and tell
them they cannot miss this or that
concert at our Festival! We have to use
some reverse logic to reach our
audiences, targeting newspapers
thousands of miles away

Audience members and
artists alike feel pride in being able
to be a part of an arts institution that
is putting their culture front and
center on stage. Latin great Johnny
Pacheco—who will return to the Festival
for the third time—has commented that he
appreciates the special respect
audiences give him when he performs at
Queens Theatre. Pacheco and other
members of the famed Fania Allstars
represent the end of a classic era in
New York salsa. By presenting this
living legend alongside current Latin
pop stars like invitee Manolín, “El
Médico de Salsa,” the Festival is
bridging this historic legacy with what
is happening in Latin music and
performance today.

Continuing the event’s tradition of
presenting powerful Rock en Español
performers, the Festival hopes to
announce a performance by a leading
group from the genre in the coming
weeks. In previous years the Festival
presented Coral and Ely Guerra’s USA
theatre debut.

This year QTP has commissioned
Producciones La Lágrima to present a
world-premiere dance piece at the
Festival. Onstage, the collective of
minimalist dancers, musicians, and poets
from Mexican border city Hermosillo—led
by choreographers Adriana Castaños and
David Barrón—evoke daily existence in
the desert. For their Festival premiere,
Castaños’ and Barrón’s duet draws on
historic icons and everyday life to
convey the diversity of expressions of

Festival performers extend
geographically from the folkloric music
and dance ensemble Jocaycu, whose
25-member ensemble will perform a wide
range of styles from Colombia, to Palo
Flamenco, a music an dance ensemble that
combines the flamenco of Spain with
traditions from the Basque country.
Stylistically, Festival music will range
from the reinvigorated Venezuelan son of
Simón Diaz, to the combination of jazz
improv, reggae, and rock of Illapu. New
York performers will include Fusión
Tango—who mix old and new tango; Super
Uba representing the best in modern
Dominican bachata, son, bolero, and
merengue; and Boston’s Sol y Canto
performing a bilingual family matinee of
toe-tapping, be-bopping arrangements
from Latin America. The Festival program
is rounded out with New York Spin
a film by Pedro Valiente, an Open Mic
Night for poetry and spoken word hosted
by Emanuel Xavier, and a bilingual
educational program by the Sesame Street

Tickets range from free to $35 and are
available in advance from Queens Theatre
in the Park’s


Festival program:

7/28 Grupo de Danzas
Folcloricas “Jocaycu.” Colombia.
Traditional dance & music from 25-member

7/29 Rock en Español Night.

7/30 Super Uba. Dominican
Republic/NY. Blends modern bachata with
classic son, bolero and merengue

7/31 Matinee. Sol Y Canto’s “El Doble
de Amigos/Twice as Many Friends.”
Traditional music from Latin America for
children. Bilingual program.

7/31 Manolin: El Medico de la Salsa.
Miami, FL. One of the world’s best Timba
performers now turned Latin pop star.

8/1 Tango Master Class. Fusion Tango.

8/1 Fusion Tango. Argentina/NY. A
unique combination of traditional tango,
fast milonga, new tango, and romantic

8/2 “New York Spin.” Spain/NY. Film
directed by Pedro Valiente;
multicultural portrait of 24 people of
different ages, occupations and races.

8/3 Open Mic Night for poets and
spoken word. Dedicated to the young and
upcoming spoken word artists and poets
from Queens.

8/4 Commissioned dance piece.
Producciones La Lagrima. Mexico. The 2nd
annual International Movements Project
presents a collaborative project
featuring a new duet by choreographers
Adriana Castaños and David Barrón,
from Hermosillo,
Sonora, Mexico
.  Set to original
music by composer Ramón Astrain.

8/5 Palo Flamenco. Spain. Music &
dance combining the flamenco of Spain &
traditions of the Basque country.

8/6 Simon Diaz. Venezuela. Back by
popular demand, he plays the
reinvigorated son of the Venezuelan

8/7 Matinee. Sesame Street Workshop.
NY. “Maravillas Musicales/Music Works
Wonders.” Bilingual educational program
created especially for Hispanic

8/7 Illapu. Chile. Experiments with
improvised jazz, the harmonic
constructions and counter-points of
classical music, the syncopation of
reggae, and a tremor of rock.

8/8 Johnny Pacheco. New York, NY. A
Latin music legend (and member of The
Fania All Stars that included Celia Cruz
and Tito Puente), El Maestro Johnny
Pacheco will return to the Festival by
popular demand.

[All photos courtesy of Queens Theatre in the Park. Photo 1: Queens Theatre
in the Par. Photo 2: Johnny pacheco. Photo 3: Super Uba].


The Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra On Tour

San Francisco, USA – The Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra will be touring North
America in June. Not your typical ska band, for the past 20 years Tokyo Ska
Paradise Orchestra has been honing its eyebrow-raising craft in Japan and Europe
like a fine but potent sake.

These ten charismatic musicians in impeccably outrageous suits are certainly
masters of third wave/modern ska, whether it is traditional Jamaican ska
(complete with full horns), hardcore garage-surf-punk-ska, or rock, jazz, funk
and reggae and even Latin and calypso. The jazz chops are there – the horn
section alone is well qualified to blast complex and articulate big band. And
when they do a cover, they go for something like Deep Purple’s “Black Night.”TSPO are veterans of the studio (11 albums, 25 singles, 10 videos and 2 DVDs)
but their live show just has to be seen to be believed. The combination of the
ferocious musicianship (all are stellar musicians, lending their talents to
other groups and projects in Japan) combined with the live-wire high energy and
the amusing toasting from the “Agitate man” add up to an unforgettable show of
slammin’ ska and much more turned upside down and sideways.

Streaming video of the group is available at:

June Tour

6/9 Wed. New York NY SOBs

6/10 Thurs. Brooklyn NY Volume

6/13 Sun. Manchester TN Bonaroo

6/16 Wed. Vancouver BC Commodore

6/17 Thurs. Seattle WA Showbox

6/18 Fri. San Francisco CA Independent

6/19 Sat. Angels Camp CA Sierra Nevada World Music Festival

6/20 Sun. Angel’s Camp CA Sierra Nevada World Music Festival

6/22 Tues. Los Angeles, CA* Knitting Factory*

*Signing/Appearance only – no performance

6/23 Wed. Los Angeles CA House of Blues

[Buy the group’s CDs:

Ska Me Crazy

Full Tension Beaters

Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra

Grand Prix


Rock Monster Strikes Back



Tokyo Strut

Moods for Tokyo Ska

Akirabushi Akira No Jean to Paradise


Ska Para Toujou

World Famous

World Famous Remix


Fiddlers 4 in Rare Form

Article contributed by Susan Budig. Photo courtesy of The Rosebud Agency

A quilted cornucopia of color and design adorns the stage at F.G. Bulber
Auditorium. These blankets, all of them handmade by the members of the Calcasieu
Cut-Ups Guild, are a fitting backdrop to the string quartet,

Fiddlers 4
. This band creates music in much the same way as the quilts are
sewn. By piecing together their distinctive styles and using time-honored
instruments, namely the violin and cello, they generate an original and
matchless sound, unlike any other band’s offering.On the campus of Louisiana State University,
, and

Michael Doucet
play their soprano-voiced fiddles as Rushad Eggleston holds
his own with his wide ranging, deeply toned cello. Their songs and tunes exhibit
the expertise each of them brings to the whole.

The first set on this April 24th evening highlights the band’s lone,
Grammy-nominated CD. A majority of the over 900 people in attendance are
unfamiliar with this eclectic quartet. Nonetheless, as many of the tunes and
songs are traditional Cajun music, the audience, living in the midst of Cajun
land, feels right at home listening to Fiddlers 4’s interpretation of music from
their own Acadian culture.

Standing on stage in Lake Charles, Michael Doucet invites us to listen to
Mazurka, a French-Acadian song, sung in French by Doucet, which segues into
Acadian Two-Step. Sitting under the overhang, far on the right side, I must be
in an acoustically poor spot because Doucet’s usually rich voice sounds tinny.

On the other hand, having listened to their CD for the past year, but never
having seen them in concert, I am delighted. It’s like viewing the innards of a
watch. The simplicity of two hands and twelve numbers works so perfectly and
flawlessly that one forgets all the intricate machinations underneath the watch
face. Fiddlers 4 is like that, too. Hearing them on their CD, I forget all the
body language and facial expressions that they surely must use to cue one
another and play together with such seamless sound. Despite the acoustics, which
are not perfect underneath the eaves of the balcony, I’m enchanted with the
visual experience on stage.

Other traditional tunes sailing in from the Appalachians on the bow and breath
of old-time fiddler, Bruce Molsky, also have a familiar ring for some of the
audience. Man of Constant Sorrow, featured in the recent movie O Brother,
Where Art Thou?
, is included on Fiddlers 4’s CD. Fiddlers 4’s rendition is
of such melancholy and aching that it moved me to tears the first several times
that I listened to it. Saturday’s performance, however, leaves my eyebrows in a
curious knit as I watch an odd exchange of glances and sheet music between
Molsky and Doucet throughout the song.

These musicians are world travelers and when Darol Anger returned from Africa
years ago, he composed “African Solstice.” This tune is both extensive and
intensive. The complex layering of rhythms, melodies, and harmonies can leave me
in an embarrassed state of musical mayhem. Finally seeing the piece performed
and following the fiddlers as each laid down his individual riff, helped me
piece together visually a puzzle that I had not been able to arrange from
auditory input alone.

Easily, this is one of my favorite selections of the night. The cohesive
sound the four string players produce challenge me as I watch Molsky offer his
first five notes over and over, joined by Doucet and moments later, Eggleston,
who adds his rumbling, rhythmic cello. With three strings providing a polyphonic
platform, Anger lays out, in signature style, a melody colored with African
musical hues. The climax of the piece, formerly heard as a chaotic tangle of
notes, now aligns into beautiful sense. It is a stunning performance that
initially leaves me wordless.

Remarkably, they do not end the set here, but continue to play Atchafalaya
Pipeline. Doucet is incredibly fun to watch. He’s all over the fiddle, with his
fingers running around the fingerboard and his shining head rocking off the chin
rest. Eggleston’s face, like that of some wacky cartoon character, seems made of
rubber. He bites down on his tongue, squeezing out energy and rhythm from his
cello strings. Molsky’s eyebrows fairly dance right off his face, while his eyes
are closed, as if in REM sleep. And Doucet’s whispered words, “wipe out” at the
end of this Cajun surf tune wrap up the set perfectly.

In some ways, a Fiddlers 4 show is like parents of several young children
finally getting some intimate time. It happens so rarely; some of the moves come
off rusty and poorly placed. So it is this Saturday evening.

The band’s music is better than ever, but the between-numbers banter stumbles
along, leaving the audience mystified. And the slip-ups, albeit only a few,
distract our attention from their overall presentation.

Anger introduces most of the pieces and while I am able to follow much of his
train of thought, it’s a stretch. I suspect many in the audience have no idea
where Anger is heading, particularly if they are not familiar with the band’s
recorded material. Anger’s mind is about three steps ahead of the rest of us and
he forgets he’s talking to people of conventional intelligence, rather than to
those who are musically mad.

Tonight’s show is presented by Banners
2004, an arts and humanities organization endorsed by Louisiana State
University. Starting up after Mardi Gras, and ending their season in May, this
group pulls together a sweeping assortment of musical and academic performances.
Director, Mary Richardson, along with Tami Chrisope carrying out administrative
duties, comprise the organization’s paid staff. Volunteers contribute the rest
of the work.

Banners Series had been interested in pairing up a showing of the film,
Louisiana Story, with a lecture given by Elemore Morgan, Jr. a local
professional painter as well as the son of the photographer for Louisiana Story.
Written and directed by Robert Flaherty in 1948, the documentary, filmed in the
bayous and swamps of southeast Louisiana, went on to garner an Oscar nomination.
The film’s score, using traditional Cajun music, some of which had been
transcribed by Irene Whitfield Holmes in her 1939 thesis for LSU, was arranged
by Virgil Thomson, winning the Pulitzer Prize in 1949.

Coincidentally, Michael Doucet, also smitten by the score of “Louisiana
Story,” began working last year on arranging several of the numbers for Fiddlers
4 to present in concert. The association between the band and Banners was made
through Morgan, also a friend of Doucet’s.

The second set begins with five numbers from the score of Louisiana Story. I
discover that I already know some of the songs, via other musicians. Je M’Endors,
a song I first heard by Cajun band,

, and then in the bluesy, salacious voice of David Doucet on his
solo album, Quand J’ai Parti, retains its sympathetic tone of a pensive lullaby,
at the same time as it takes on a new dimension through the skillful fingerings
and bowings of Eggleston.

Listening to the original score of Louisiana Story, as I did later, I’m taken
by the delicate, intimate beauty of Thomson’s arrangements. It’s no wonder
Doucet chose this work for Fiddlers 4 to rejuvenate and perform. Fiddlers 4’s
adaptation of Thomson’s orchestral opus serves as a bridge, making it more
accessible to the general public, possibly giving it a bit more appeal to those
who usually balk at serious music. The film’s score is an American treasure,
much like Aaron Copland’s Appalachian Springs (1944). An aside, I snare a copy
of Louisiana Story in an ebay auction three days after this concert.

This set is finished off with a kickin’ old-time duo, Greek Medley and Polly
Put The Kettle On. We hear a favorite of Molsky’s, I Wish I Knew How It Would
Feel To Be Free. Then Doucet says, “Since we’re in Cajun land, we’ll end with
a Cajun song
,” bowing the first notes of Le Bétaille.

Some of this year’s Banners Series included Juggernaut Jug Band, Guy Davis, and
Sion e Companhia. All in all, a very noteworthy slate of entertainers and
academics. While I didn’t see any other shows, I’d very likely agree with
Banners patron, and LSU professor of Women’s Studies, Janet Allured who said,
“This was our best musical event of the year.”

I remark to myself that I’ve never seen anyone play the cello like Eggleston
does. The way his fingers crawl up and down the neck, the way his bow whips
around on the strings like a director’s baton captivate me. But more than these
technical skills, the way Eggleston watches Anger and adjusts his playing and
facial expression to match Anger’s is uncanny.

The ensemble is truly defined by the players. They each bring in their
dynamic, strong personalities and styles, blending them into one very hot,
passionate fusion. But more than anyone, it seems Eggleston plays a pivotal and
essential role. Anger describes it well when he says that Rushad’s cello playing
is out of this world. It’s beyond compare of what I’ve seen and heard before,
not so much in the breakouts, but in the rhythm and tone. This guy jams, he
rocks, he is truly incomparable, daresay, irreplaceable. I feel like a
privileged witness to a foursome of musical geniuses who embolden one another,
providing each another with the perfect proportions that result in an exquisite


Flamenco Cultural Forum “Morón 2004” Founded in Morón de la Frontera

Morón de la Frontera, Spain – The Foro Cultural Flamenco “Morón 2004” was founded on March 19th in the city of Morón de la Frontera (Seville, Spain) as a non-profit organization which hopes to cover the cultural need of preserving the art of flamenco in the city.Twenty-four founding members, including flamenco-followers and professional artists associated with flamenco, participated in the founding assembly wherein the statutes were unanimously approved and presented.

The Foro Cultural Flamenco “Morón 2004” comes into being with the intention of continuity, and hopes to fill a cultural vacuum via the collection and safeguarding of this city’s flamenco heritage, supporting and projecting this heritage in order to contribute to the development and promotion of its values.

One of the Foro’s principal objectives is the creation of a Flamenco Cultural Center where a Program of Activities can be developed and implemented, not only among the citizens of Moron, but within the flamenco community at large. Activities designed to promote and support professionals and local amateurs, uncover new talents and encourage study and investigation of the history of flamenco in Morón de la Frontera will be the backbone of the Program.

The necessary steps have been taken to formally request the use of adequate
premises to serve as headquarters for the Cultural Center where relevant material may be exhibited and the Program of Activities be developed.


Tribute Gala to the 80th Anniversary of Lira Matancera

(Prensa Latina – Cumbancha) Matanzas.- One of Cuba´s oldest orchestras, La Lira
Matancera, will be paid tribute for its 80th anniversary on May 12, at the Sauto
Theater, in the western Cuban city of Matanzas. Los Muñequitos de Matanzas and
the Fantasia String Quintet, directed by maestro Alberto Garcia, will share the
stage with the group and play old and contemporary classics of its repertoire.
Other invited celebrities include, Eduardo Rosillo, professor of Cuban radio
announcers, linked to the work of the orchestra for years. The Lira Matancera orchestra has retained during its 80 years the hallmark that makes it a genuine expression of Cuban culture and its members keep their predecessors’ spirit of creativity, improvisation and enthusiasm alive. The orchestra is currently directed by Carmelo Marrero Alpizar and performs for tourists at the Varadero beach resort and at concerts and balls in theaters and institutions throughout Cuba.


Brenda Fassie: 1964-2004

Johannesburg, South Africa – South African diva Brenda Fassie died at Sunninghill Hospital in Johannesburg on the afternoon of May 9. She had been in a coma for some two weeks after suffering an asthma attack on April 26. The attack led to a cardiac arrest, and family members confirmed that Fassie had suffered brain damage afterward. While in a coma, many notable well-wishers paid visits to Fassie, including South African President Thabo Mbeki and Winnie Madikizela-Mandela among others.

Brenda Fassie’s singing career began in 1979, when Fassie was just 16 years old. South African record producer Koloi Lebona heard her sing, and took her to Johannesburg to continue her schooling and pursue a musical career. In 1983 Brenda had a massive hit record with “Weekend Special” with her band Brenda and the Big Dudes. The song is still regarded as a very important song in South African music history.Her career continued to gain momentum in the 80s and 90s, and she toured extensively throughout the world. The 90s, however, also brought some rough times to Fassie. She was divorced from her husband of 2 years in 1991 amid rumors of physical abuse; she was in and out of drug rehab clinics; in 1995 she awoke from a drug binge next to the body of her lesbian lover who had died of an overdose.

She rededicated herself to her music, and scored a big hit in a collaboration with Papa Wemba. In a 2001 article that coincided with a US tour, Time magazine called Fassie “The Madonna of the Townships.” Her new CDs have sold very well, and are selling out in record numbers since the news of her death.

Fassie’s funeral service will be held at the Langa Stadium in Cape Town on May 16.


You Are Here, New Studio Album by Banco De Gaia

San Francisco, USA – You Are Here, the new album from Toby Marks (aka Banco de Gaia) is scheduled for
release in North America on May 11. The album
features the vocal talents of Jennifer Folker (also heard on
“Obsidian” from Banco’s album Igizeh) and remixes to be released
separately by Future Loop Foundation and Andy Guthrie’s OverfunktYou Are Here is the first studio album by Banco De Gaia since Igizeh
in 2000. The album is a series of musical snap shots of the world we live in as
of 2003. It is not a slogan-shouting political tirade, more a meditation on how
things are, a globally inspired series of soundtracks.

Banco de Gaia intends to tour the United States with a completely new live
show featuring brand new video material as well as tunes from You Are Here.

Buy You Are Here.


Your Connection to traditional and contemporary World Music including folk, roots and various types of global fusion