Yange Yange Arts is a Wagogo cultural group from the central Tanzanian region around the city of Dodoma. Tanzania has some 12 ethnic groups none of which accounts for more than a few percent of the overall population so there is no dominant ethnic culture or sound. That said the one Tanzanian musical genre to have achieved worldwide fame is the distinctly Wagogo music of the late Dr. Hukwe Zawose (1938-2003), one of Peter Gabriel’s favorite musicians and patron of Chibite group who have also performed twice already at the festival.
Zawose refined Wagogo instruments particularly the deep-toned hollow ilimba (thumb piano) and the zeze (bowed fiddle) with its beautiful otherworldly overtones.
Yange Yange Arts performed at the very first Sauti za Busara festival in 2004.
Yange Yange Arts Group’s declared mission is to uplift disabled artists in the Dodoma region. They feature both able-bodied and handicapped musicians and dancers. The group has played in arts festivals as far away as Ivory Coast, Holland and Sweden.
Known as “The Doctor,” Remmy Ongala was based in Dar es Salaam with his band Orchestre Super Matimila. In Tanzania, Remmy’s popularity amongst the people particularly the young was unrivalled – only the President was better known.
The steady melodic drive of Congolese-style soukous was at the root of Matimila’s music lifted by the fluid East African guitar style and infectious Tanzanian rhythms. The music had a broad spacious quality with hints of Latin and Caribbean influence. Above this soared the rich soulful vocals of Remmy Ongala.
Remmy’s aim was to make people dance but also to make them think. The voice of the Tanzanian artist always had something politically astute or deeply philosophical to say. His concerns were rooted in both the daily life of Dar es Salaam and politics on a global scale. By introducing English lyrics he widened his potential audience yet further.
As he said ‘I am successful in Tanzania because I write songs about serious topics; my music is known as Ubongo Beat because in Swahili ubongo means brain and my music is heavy thinking music.’
Remmy Ongala died on December 13, 2010 in Dar es Salaam.
All Stars Kikundi cha Taifa (National Taarab Orchestra) of Zanzibar was founded many years ago having a flexible set up but always featuring the finest of taarab musicians from the Islands.
The group is presently under the artistic direction of two of Zanzibar’s taarab maestros Mr Iddi Suwedi of Culture Musical Club and Mr Mohamed Ilyas of Nadi Ikhwan Safaa (Malindi Taarab). Including lead singers and selected artists from the aforementioned orchestras, Kikundi cha Taifa also features musicians from East African Melody, KIKI Taarab Baladna and other groups from around Zanzibar and Pemba islands.
Numbering 42 artists in total the orchestra plays traditional taarab music using ud, violin, qanun, cello, bass, accordion and percussion.
Under government sponsorship the National Taarab Orchestra comes together specifically to perform for special events for example to mark Zanzibar’s Revolution Day every year on January 12th. Athough they have not yet recorded CDs, famous songs in their repertoire include Vya Kale Dhahabu (Old is Gold); Kanijia Kwenye Ndoto; Ombi Mahususi and Chozi la Huba.
Founded in 1950, the Nadi Ikhwani Safaa orchestra can probably trace its roots back further than any other orchestra in Africa. Every known musician from Zanzibar has at some point or other performed or played with “Malindi” (as they are also affectionately known) and recently they enjoyed a strong revival in popularity with the local population.
This gathering of hobby musicians from all walks of life plays taarab in its original beauty – delicate poetry outstanding vocal performances that reveal in their elaborate ornamentation the close connection to their Arabic roots and finely chiseled instrumentals.
Love, companionship, friendship, the enjoyment of music, the pains of sadness, all find expression in the moving performances and the sweet sounds of their orchestral arrangements. Maalim Iddi Farhan one of their oldest and most respected members summed it up: “…It goes to the mind and then to the heart and to the blood and you feel happy at the end.”
Established in Dar es Salaam during December 2006, Jahazi Modern Taarab group is currently the leading taarab group in Tanzania with more fans than any other. Their success story can be attributed to Mzee Yusuf the manager and owner who is also one of the pioneer musicians of the modern taarab style. Mzee teams up with his sister Khadija Yusuf another very popular taarab singer in Tanzania. Both artists built their reputations and international fame with Zanzibar Stars Modern Taarab.
Modern taarab is a style which gained popularity in the late 1990s by some taarab musicians who were trying to find a way of building a new generation of fans. Unlike in traditional taarab this modern version where most of the music comes from keyboards rather than real instruments allows fans to ‘get up and dance’. Most of the songs are about how one boasts of enjoying his or her love life. Modern taarab groups are often in the headlines and have attracted criticism for promoting hatred and jealousy especially among women.
‘To avoid being misunderstood we decided to write songs which speak about realities in love life like how to mend broken affairs as well as unifying and strengthening relationships’ claims Mzee Yusuf explaining that his modern taarab style does not promote hatred.
Founded in 1972 in the outskirts [Ng’ambo] of Dar es Salaam as a chakacha ngoma group – a style of traditional music performed mainly on the eastern coast of East Africa mostly at wedding ceremonies. The dancers are usually women with the men playing instruments.
In the late 1980s young people changed chakacha from pure traditional music to more mixed flavor mchiriku by adding a small keyboard in the collection and two drums and a stool with two timing sticks. Ever since this particular music became very popular among the youth from the working class communities. Unlike chakacha, mchiriku dancers are of both sexes and in most cases the audiences are free to join in the fun.
Jagwa Music group with twelve members is now one of the leading Dar es Salaam mchiriku groups performing in weddings traditional ceremonies and sometimes in clubs. Jagwa has recorded various popular albums available locally on cassette.
Dr. Hukwe Zawose was one of Tanzania’s leading traditional musicians. His work was a joyful celebration of his heritage. He dressed in elaborate costume and his performances were an exotic and enjoyable show.
He performed the music of his people, the Wagogo, a mix of traditional story-based pieces, political celebration songs and his own compositions. As well as an extraordinary five-octave vocal range, switching between a high pitched sound and a form of throat singing, he played several traditional instruments, including the ilimba (thumb piano) and izeze (stringed instrument).
Dr. Zawose devoted much of his time to lecturing at the Bagamoyo College of Arts in Tanzania. He made a recording with Canadian producer and guitar virtuoso Michael Brook, known for his work with U2, Brian Eno and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.
Culture Musical Club is not only the largest but also one of the most prolific and successful orchestras of Zanzibar and they present taarab music Swahili style at its best.
In addition to countless performances in Stonetown villages of Zanzibar and on the Tanzania mainland, this ensemble has toured internationally with outstanding success and has won over audiences in France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, the Arab Emirates and Reunion with their lush songs and instrumental solos.
They perform new compositions on a regular basis and have developed a distinct and uniquely Swahili style. Their CD-releases have made the name Culture Musical Club known to audiences throughout the world so that rehearsals in their club house have become a tourist attraction.
Bi Kidude was an institution in Zanzibar, and East Africa’s greatest musical legend. The diva of Zanzibar taarab, she also played other musical styles including more ngoma-based unyago and msondo.
Her real name has been described as Fatma Baraka Khamis or Bi Fatuma Binti Baraka. She grew up in a family of seven in the Zanzibari village of Mfagimarigo. Her father was a coconut seller.
Bi Kidude’s exact date of birth was unknown, much of her life story was uncorroborated, giving her an almost mythical status. Kidude started out her musical career in the 192s, and learned many of her songs with Siti bint Saad. She performed in countries all around Europe, Middle East and Japan and finally recorded her first solo album (Zanzibar, Retroafric Recordings) in 1994, while in her mid-eighties. She also released a second locally-produced album (Machozi ya Huba, Heartbeat Records) with her traditional drums influencing the burgeoning Zenji Flava local hip-hop scene in one of the most remarkable juxtapositions of musical style in modern World Music.
Since fleeing a forced marriage at the age of 13 and escaping her homeland of Zanzibar, Bi Kidude led an extraordinary and varied career as a drummer, singer, henna artist and natural healer. Her first journey was to the mainland of Tanzania, where she walked the length and breadth of the country barefoot.
With renewed confidence and a new attitude to tradition (by now Kidude had thrown off her veil and shaved her head!) she returned, slowly to Zanzibar where she acquired a small clay house in the 194s and settled down to life grounded in the traditional roots of society.
Bi Kidude was part of the Unyago movement, which prepares young Swahili women for their transition through puberty and excelled at the art of henna designing for young brides, manufacturing her own wanja application from age old recipes fit ‘to make a rainbow shine.’ Bi Kidude performed traditional unyago music and was the island’s leading exponent of this ancient dance ritual, performed exclusively for teenage girls, which uses traditional rhythms to teach women to pleasure their husbands, while lecturing against the dangers of sexual abuse and oppression.
Her many talents were acknowledged by Zanzibar International Film Festival (ZIFF) at the second Festival of the Dhow Countries in 1999, when she was awarded Lifetime Achievement Award for Contribution to the Arts.
Bi Kidude’s is a remarkable story, one which challenges our perception of age, and of the role of women in Islam. She never conformed to the media stereotype of a Muslim woman ever since she removed her veil. To see a ninety-something year old Muslim woman drink, smoke, flirt, dance and drum was a unique experience. To witness the transformation as she reversed the aging process and changes from a wrinkled granny into a vital shining star was nothing short of revolutionary.
In the summer of 2004 Bi Kidude toured Europe with Zanzibar’s illustrious Culture Musical Club taarab orchestra. Midway through this tour, the whole of Zanzibar was thrown into shock and disarray when a rumor spread fast through the island that Bi Kidude had died. From the narrow streets of Stone Town to the bazaars of N’gambo and throughout the villages this was the only topic of conversation as the island rapidly acquired the atmosphere of mourning. This rumor continued to spread even long after the offices of Busara Promotions had disseminated confirmation from Bi Kidude’s European promoters that on the contrary, she was alive and very well. She was surprised to hear that people in Zanzibar think that she has died:
“Sijafa bado. Labda sababu watu hawajaonana nami sasa karibu mwezi. Lakini bado tunaendelea na safari na bado safari ndefu ya miezi miwili. Lakini sijambo, sina wasiwasi miye. Kuimba naimba na nguvu zote ambazo ninazo ili watu wafurahi.”
“I haven’t died yet. Maybe people are saying that because they haven’t seen me around for almost a month. But we are still continuing our tour which lasts for two more months. Me, I’m well, I have no problem. Me I sing with all my strength and continue to make people happy.”
In 2006, ScreenStation Productions with Busara Promotions produced a 66-minute video documentary titled As Old As My Tongue: the Myth and Life of Bi Kidude.
“Over the last three years we have filmed with Bi Kidude and her extended entourage,” said director Andy Jones. “From her humble home in a township on the edge of historic Stone Town to the grandeur of the Theatre de la Ville in Paris we have captured moments of love, jealousy, protection and exploitation of a witty and humble woman. Musical moments combined with highly personal observation form the trunk of our story. The music is extraordinary. From the seemingly poetic but really biting satire of the grand Taarab orchestras to the telling rhythms of primal sexuality expressed in her x-rated Unyago the film is punctuated with sensational live footage.”
In 2005, Bi Kidude bint Baraka was presented with the WOMEX 2005 Award for her lifetime achievements and contributions to world music.
This intriguing and inspiring woman was a repository and leading exponent of Swahili culture. (Bi Kidude) herself said, “How can I stop singing? When I sing I feel like a 14-year old girl again.”
Swifatui Abraar Group was formed in 2007. The group was started by three young men, Hassan Kumbi, Hassan Ahmada and Mashaka Kumbi, and more recently has expanded to seven artists. Their main aims are to educate and entertain Muslims and non-Muslims alike by using qasida to promote positive images of Islam and a tolerant and peaceful way of life.
Swifatui Abraar has been successful in reaching the youth of Dar es Salaam, where they are based in the Temeke district. They have released one album locally, Siku ya Kufa (Dying Day) recorded by Poteza Records.
Siku ya Kufa (Poteza Records, 2009)
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