Tag Archives: Tanzanian music

Artist Profiles: National Taarab

Kikundi cha Taifa
All Stars Kikundi cha Taifa (National Taarab Orchestra) of Zanzibar was founded many years ago having a flexible set up but always featuring the finest of taarab musicians from the Islands.

The group is presently under the artistic direction of two of Zanzibar’s taarab maestros Mr Iddi Suwedi of Culture Musical Club and Mr Mohamed Ilyas of Nadi Ikhwan Safaa (Malindi Taarab). Including lead singers and selected artists from the aforementioned orchestras, Kikundi cha Taifa also features musicians from East African Melody, KIKI Taarab Baladna and other groups from around Zanzibar and Pemba islands.

Numbering 42 artists in total the orchestra plays traditional taarab music using ud, violin, qanun, cello, bass, accordion and percussion.

Under government sponsorship the National Taarab Orchestra comes together specifically to perform for special events for example to mark Zanzibar’s Revolution Day every year on January 12th. Athough they have not yet recorded CDs, famous songs in their repertoire include Vya Kale Dhahabu (Old is Gold); Kanijia Kwenye Ndoto; Ombi Mahususi and Chozi la Huba.


Artist Profiles: Nadi Ikhwani Safaa

Founded in 1950, the Nadi Ikhwani Safaa orchestra can probably trace its roots back further than any other orchestra in Africa. Every known musician from Zanzibar has at some point or other performed or played with “Malindi” (as they are also affectionately known) and recently they enjoyed a strong revival in popularity with the local population.

This gathering of hobby musicians from all walks of life plays taarab in its original beauty – delicate poetry outstanding vocal performances that reveal in their elaborate ornamentation the close connection to their Arabic roots and finely chiseled instrumentals.

Love, companionship, friendship, the enjoyment of music, the pains of sadness, all find expression in the moving performances and the sweet sounds of their orchestral arrangements. Maalim Iddi Farhan one of their oldest and most respected members summed it up: “…It goes to the mind and then to the heart and to the blood and you feel happy at the end.”


Music of Zanzibar Vol 2 : Ikhwani Safaa Musical Club (Globestyle 1988)
Zanzibara Vol. 1: A Hundred Years of Tarab in Zanzibar (Buda Musique)
4 Days and 11 Nights (2006)
Made in Zanzibar (2009)


Artist Profiles: Jahazi Modern Taarab

Jahazi Modern Taarab – Photo by Kwa

Established in Dar es Salaam during December 2006, Jahazi Modern Taarab group is currently the leading taarab group in Tanzania with more fans than any other. Their success story can be attributed to Mzee Yusuf the manager and owner who is also one of the pioneer musicians of the modern taarab style. Mzee teams up with his sister Khadija Yusuf another very popular taarab singer in Tanzania. Both artists built their reputations and international fame with Zanzibar Stars Modern Taarab.

Modern taarab is a style which gained popularity in the late 1990s by some taarab musicians who were trying to find a way of building a new generation of fans. Unlike in traditional taarab this modern version where most of the music comes from keyboards rather than real instruments allows fans to ‘get up and dance’. Most of the songs are about how one boasts of enjoying his or her love life. Modern taarab groups are often in the headlines and have attracted criticism for promoting hatred and jealousy especially among women.

‘To avoid being misunderstood we decided to write songs which speak about realities in love life like how to mend broken affairs as well as unifying and strengthening relationships’ claims Mzee Yusuf explaining that his modern taarab style does not promote hatred.


Artist Profiles: Jagwa Music

Jagwa Music

Founded in 1972 in the outskirts [Ng’ambo] of Dar es Salaam as a chakacha ngoma group – a style of traditional music performed mainly on the eastern coast of East Africa mostly at wedding ceremonies. The dancers are usually women with the men playing instruments.

In the late 1980s young people changed chakacha from pure traditional music to more mixed flavor mchiriku by adding a small keyboard in the collection and two drums and a stool with two timing sticks. Ever since this particular music became very popular among the youth from the working class communities. Unlike chakacha, mchiriku dancers are of both sexes and in most cases the audiences are free to join in the fun.

Jagwa Music group with twelve members is now one of the leading Dar es Salaam mchiriku groups performing in weddings traditional ceremonies and sometimes in clubs. Jagwa has recorded various popular albums available locally on cassette.


Artist Profiles: Dr. Hukwe Zawose

Dr. Hukwe Zawose

Dr. Hukwe Zawose was one of Tanzania’s leading traditional musicians. His work was a joyful celebration of his heritage. He dressed in elaborate costume and his performances were an exotic and enjoyable show.

He performed the music of his people, the Wagogo, a mix of traditional story-based pieces, political celebration songs and his own compositions. As well as an extraordinary five-octave vocal range, switching between a high pitched sound and a form of throat singing, he played several traditional instruments, including the ilimba (thumb piano) and izeze (stringed instrument).

Dr. Zawose devoted much of his time to lecturing at the Bagamoyo College of Arts in Tanzania. He made a recording with Canadian producer and guitar virtuoso Michael Brook, known for his work with U2, Brian Eno and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.


Artist Profiles: Culture Musical Club

Culture Musical Club – Photo courtesy of Sauti za Busara Music Festival

Culture Musical Club is not only the largest but also one of the most prolific and successful orchestras of Zanzibar and they present taarab music Swahili style at its best.

In addition to countless performances in Stonetown villages of Zanzibar and on the Tanzania mainland, this ensemble has toured internationally with outstanding success and has won over audiences in France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, the Arab Emirates and Reunion with their lush songs and instrumental solos.

They perform new compositions on a regular basis and have developed a distinct and uniquely Swahili style. Their CD-releases have made the name Culture Musical Club known to audiences throughout the world so that rehearsals in their club house have become  a tourist attraction.


The Music of Zanzibar (Globestyle, 1988)

Spices of Zanzibar (Network Medie, 1996)

Bashraf (Dizim, 2000)

Waridi: Parfums de Zanzibar (Virgin, 2004)

Shime! (World Village, 2009)


Artist Profiles: Bi Kidude

Bi Kidude


Bi Kidude was an institution in Zanzibar, and East Africa’s greatest musical legend. The diva of Zanzibar taarab, she also played other musical styles including more ngoma-based unyago and msondo.

Her real name has been described as Fatma Baraka Khamis or Bi Fatuma Binti Baraka. She grew up in a family of seven in the Zanzibari village of Mfagimarigo. Her father was a coconut seller.

Bi Kidude’s exact date of birth was unknown, much of her life story was uncorroborated, giving her an almost mythical status. Kidude started out her musical career in the 192s, and learned many of her songs with Siti bint Saad. She performed in countries all around Europe, Middle East and Japan and finally recorded her first solo album (Zanzibar, Retroafric Recordings) in 1994, while in her mid-eighties. She also released a second locally-produced album (Machozi ya Huba, Heartbeat Records) with her traditional drums influencing the burgeoning Zenji Flava local hip-hop scene in one of the most remarkable juxtapositions of musical style in modern World Music.

Since fleeing a forced marriage at the age of 13 and escaping her homeland of Zanzibar, Bi Kidude led an extraordinary and varied career as a drummer, singer, henna artist and natural healer. Her first journey was to the mainland of Tanzania, where she walked the length and breadth of the country barefoot.

With renewed confidence and a new attitude to tradition (by now Kidude had thrown off her veil and shaved her head!) she returned, slowly to Zanzibar where she acquired a small clay house in the 194s and settled down to life grounded in the traditional roots of society.

Bi Kidude was part of the Unyago movement, which prepares young Swahili women for their transition through puberty and excelled at the art of henna designing for young brides, manufacturing her own wanja application from age old recipes fit ‘to make a rainbow shine.’ Bi Kidude performed traditional unyago music and was the island’s leading exponent of this ancient dance ritual, performed exclusively for teenage girls, which uses traditional rhythms to teach women to pleasure their husbands, while lecturing against the dangers of sexual abuse and oppression.

Her many talents were acknowledged by Zanzibar International Film Festival (ZIFF) at the second Festival of the Dhow Countries in 1999, when she was awarded Lifetime Achievement Award for Contribution to the Arts.

Bi Kidude’s is a remarkable story, one which challenges our perception of age, and of the role of women in Islam. She never conformed to the media stereotype of a Muslim woman ever since she removed her veil. To see a ninety-something year old Muslim woman drink, smoke, flirt, dance and drum was a unique experience. To witness the transformation as she reversed the aging process and changes from a wrinkled granny into a vital shining star was nothing short of revolutionary.

In the summer of 2004 Bi Kidude toured Europe with Zanzibar’s illustrious Culture Musical Club taarab orchestra. Midway through this tour, the whole of Zanzibar was thrown into shock and disarray when a rumor spread fast through the island that Bi Kidude had died. From the narrow streets of Stone Town to the bazaars of N’gambo and throughout the villages this was the only topic of conversation as the island rapidly acquired the atmosphere of mourning. This rumor continued to spread even long after the offices of Busara Promotions had disseminated confirmation from Bi Kidude’s European promoters that on the contrary, she was alive and very well. She was surprised to hear that people in Zanzibar think that she has died:

Sijafa bado. Labda sababu watu hawajaonana nami sasa karibu mwezi. Lakini bado tunaendelea na safari na bado safari ndefu ya miezi miwili. Lakini sijambo, sina wasiwasi miye. Kuimba naimba na nguvu zote ambazo ninazo ili watu wafurahi.”

I haven’t died yet. Maybe people are saying that because they haven’t seen me around for almost a month. But we are still continuing our tour which lasts for two more months. Me, I’m well, I have no problem. Me I sing with all my strength and continue to make people happy.”

In 2006, ScreenStation Productions with Busara Promotions produced a 66-minute video documentary titled As Old As My Tongue: the Myth and Life of Bi Kidude.


Bi Kidude


Over the last three years we have filmed with Bi Kidude and her extended entourage,” said director Andy Jones. “From her humble home in a township on the edge of historic Stone Town to the grandeur of the Theatre de la Ville in Paris we have captured moments of love, jealousy, protection and exploitation of a witty and humble woman. Musical moments combined with highly personal observation form the trunk of our story. The music is extraordinary. From the seemingly poetic but really biting satire of the grand Taarab orchestras to the telling rhythms of primal sexuality expressed in her x-rated Unyago the film is punctuated with sensational live footage.

In 2005, Bi Kidude bint Baraka was presented with the WOMEX 2005 Award for her lifetime achievements and contributions to world music.


Bi Kidude receiving the WOMEX award in 2005 – Photo by Peter Bennett


This intriguing and inspiring woman was a repository and leading exponent of Swahili culture. (Bi Kidude) herself said, “How can I stop singing? When I sing I feel like a 14-year old girl again.”


Bi Kidude died on April 17, 2013.

Partial discography:

Zanzibara 4 – Bi Kidude (Buda Musique)


Artist Profiles: Swifatui Abraar Group

Swifatui Abraar Group was formed in 2007. The group was started by three young men, Hassan Kumbi, Hassan Ahmada and Mashaka Kumbi, and more recently has expanded to seven artists. Their main aims are to educate and entertain Muslims and non-Muslims alike by using qasida to promote positive images of Islam and a tolerant and peaceful way of life.

Swifatui Abraar has been successful in reaching the youth of Dar es Salaam, where they are based in the Temeke district. They have released one album locally, Siku ya Kufa (Dying Day) recorded by Poteza Records.


Siku ya Kufa (Poteza Records, 2009)


The Fabulous Musiki wa dansi of East Africa

Various Artists – Urgent Jumping! East African Musiki Wa Dansi Classics (Sterns Africa STCD 3067-68CD, 2016)

This 2 CD world music compilation is packed with over two hours of Afro-rooted dance music from 1970s and 1980s East Africa. Selected by British DJ and journalist John Armstrong, the anthology features many of the hits popular during two decades in East Africa.

Many of the Kenyan, Tanzanian and Congolese bands featured Urgent Jumping! included talented guitarists who combined modern elements with traditional rhythms. The vocals are in KiSwahili, the language spoken across many East African countries.

The most prominent genres included in this great compilation include benga, a style developed by the Luo people of western Kenya, who fused traditional beats and melodies with electric guitars and basses.

Congolese music was also very influential. Congolese migrants brought Cuban-inspired rumba and soukous to Kenya and Tanzania. It was common bands that featured musicians from various countries.

Lastly, there is the Arabic and Indian music influence that came across the sea. This includes taraab from Zanzibar, Lamu and other islands off the East African that had an effect on pop music in the mainland cities of Mombassa, Nairobi and Dar es Salaam.

The artists featured in Urgent Jumping! Are: L’Orch. Dar International, Afro 70, Kauma Boys Band, Super Mambo Jazz Band “69”, Maquis du Zaire, Victoria Jazz Band, Orchestre Conga Internationale, The Golden Kings Band, Sunburst Band, Urafiki Jazz Band, L’Orchestre Grand Piza, Hafusa Abasi & Slim Ali and the Kikulacho Yahoos Band, L’Orch. Moja One, Sega Sega Band, L’Orchestre Super Mambo, Earthquake Jazz Band, Vijana Jazz Band, Orchestre Special Liwanza, Juwata Jazz Band and Orchestre Super Jambo.

John Armstrong did a fabulous job putting this collection together. It’s great to see East Africa getting some attention since most of the African music we normally get is dominated by West African acts.

Buy Urgent Jumping! East African Musiki Wa Dansi Classics in the Americas

Buy Urgent Jumping! East African Musiki Wa Dansi Classics in Europe


Artist Profiles: Tausi Women’s Taarab

Tausi Taarab
Tausi Taarab

Zanzibar’s all-female Tausi Taarab orchestra was formed in 2009 and presents classical style music in the tradition of some of Zanzibar’s strongest women. Dating back to the 1920s when Siti Bint Saad who is widely recognized as the ‘mother of taarab’ recorded a large catalog of Swahili songs, many talented women composers and singers have contributed to the development of Zanzibar’s most famous music style.

Over time, other women’s taarab groups existed (such as Nadi lkhwati Safaa, Nuru el Ayoun, Sahib el Ary, Royal Air Force and Navy groups) that were especially strong during the 1960s. However, in those days even in the “women’s groups”, it was always the men who played the instruments.

Tausi Taarab presents an innovation and inspiration in a very traditional genre: an all female orchestra where all instruments are played by women, accompanying women singers and performing songs composed by women.