In his hometown of Buenos Aires, Cristobal Repetto brought back the traditional voice of the tango. In his early 20s, his voice could easily have been confused with the great voices of tango’s past. He leads a new generation of artists breathing new life into this genre.
Cristobal Repetto was born in 1979 on July 9. Repetto grew up surrounded by musicians, peñas (clubs where you can listen to tango and folk music) and town festivities where he quickly found a way to get on stage and show his early vocal abilities.
“The emotion I feel when I see rock kids appreciate tango, or tango old-timers appreciating what I do, is indescribable,” says Repetto. “That’s the most amazing thing. True, I’m the singer, it is my voice… but it’s also about the songs, which go beyond tango and anybody can appreciate, despite its dark elements. In that sense, I agree with Adriana Varela: tango is the ultimate heavy metal.”
His self-titled album consists of tangos composed and first recorded in the 1920s to the 1960s. “Listening and listening: that’s what my life has been all about so far,” continues Repetto. “I grew up listening to music of every genre.
From an early age, I was shown a vast musical landscape by my parents, popular music of Argentine and of the world. In my family’s large record collection, there were albums by Mercedes Sosa, Tita Merello, Jorge Cafrune, Violeta Parra and Yupanqui. Later on, León Gieco, Fito and Spinetta arrived and, with them, my first songs. Then came the candombes, Caetano and my first bands. And eventually Corsini, Magaldi, the songstresses and ‘Polaco’ Goyeneche. Today it continues to be the music that gets me going.”
Repetto toured Spain as one of Bajofondo Tango Club’s opening acts with great success.
Dino Saluzzi is one of the leading bandoneon players in the world. Timoteo “Dino” Saluzzi was born in Campo Santo in northern Argentina and led his first group at the age of 14. He began to play professionally while studying in Buenos Aires. It was in Buenos Aires, too, that he met and befriended Astor Piazzolla as the term “tango nuevo” began to gain currency.
Even though Piazzolla and Saluzzi always respected each other’s work, Dino has never cared to put a label on his own work. But he has emphasized in numerous interviews that his is not an “art music” but a music that comes out of life and attempts to express the emotions, thoughts and memories that accompany it. And this has remained as true of the work that stresses primarily his compositional projects such as the ongoing Kultrum collaboration with the Rosamunde Quartett – as it is of work in which improvisation has a larger role to play, as on Senderos.
From his first ECM album, recorded in 1982, Saluzzi’s music was well received by the world’s press.
In 1997 at the ECM Festival in Badenweiler, Germany, Dino Saluzzi and Jon Christensen, bandoneonist and drummer, came together originally to play music of Krzysztof Komeda with trumpeter Tomasz Stanko. The line-up, also included saxophonist John Surman, violinist Michelle Makarski and bassist Anders Jormin, went on to play on Stanko’s prize-winning album From the Green Hill and toured extensively.
“That was an interesting band but difficult to present live because Dino often plays so quietly,” said Christensen. “As a drummer I actually like that, bringing the volume level right down. It’s very good for intense listening. And in fact you can play quietly and very dynamically. Anyway, Dino and I qot to be very good friends on the Stanko tours, we have a very good understanding. Of course, rm never going to be a tango drummer (laughter) and fortunately Dino doesn’t want that. I know he also appreciates the possibility just to play very openly and to see what happens…”
Senderos (paths in Spanish) is one of the most spontaneously-conceived of all Saluzzi’s albums. The Argentine master musician was in Oslo, working on another project in November 2002, when producer Manfred Eicher first proposed an immediate start upon a new solo album. “And then I got a phone call,” drummer Jon Christensen recalls, “How about coming over and adding some cymbals on a few tracks?’ And then it was, ‘Well, why don’t the two of you play a few things together?’ And about three hours later, we realized we’d made an album. I love to work this way, and it seems only to happen with this record company.”
On Senderos, you can almost hear the artists thinking aloud as they shape the music in the moment. Ten of the album’s pieces are duets. Some are Dino’s songs, some are freely improvised. There are also four solo bandoneon pieces that seem to melt with nostalgia for the simple life which Saluzzi left behind so long ago in the village of Campo Santo.
In recent years Dino Saluzzi has toured and recorded primarily with his son, guitarist José Maria Saluzzi, the two of them playing in trios with Marc Johnson (Cite de la Musique) and Palle Danielsson (Responsorium).
Ojos Negros was Saluzzi’s 2007 release. It is chamber music with inspirational roots in Argentine traditions, putting the emphasis on Dino Saluzzi’s finely-crafted compositions and adds the beautiful old tango by Vicente Greco that is the album’s title track. Interplay and improvisation also have roles to play in a recording that follows six years of duo concerts as well as ten years of collaboration between bandoneon master Saluzzi and the Rosamunde Quartet, of which cellist Anja Lechner is a founder member. They have taken their time to get this right.
A classical musician firstly, Anja Lechner’s interest in tango goes back some 25 years, when she formed a duo with pianist Peter Ludwig to play their German interpretations of the idiom. She gave her first concerts in Argentina in the early 1980s and made a point of looking for tango’s master musicians. But she first encountered Dino Saluzzi at a Munich concert where he played solo bandoneon. “He was playing a music that was really his own. When we finally began to play together I can say that I entered a new world.”
The shared work has been a gradual process of becoming freer with the material while respecting it, resulting in a very integrated music. Saluzzi praises the cellist’s commitment and stylistic independence: “Anja has become part of the music without losing her own identity. I think this is very important. She doesn’t try to imitate the tango players. She has her own sound and character, and this makes our project together culturally richer.”
De Vuelta a Salta (RCA Camden, 1972)
La Cerrillana, with Los Chalchaleros (RCA Victor, 1972)
Bandoneón Tierra Adentro – Vol. 1 (RCA Camdon, 1973)
Bandoneón Tierra Adentro – Vol. 2 (RCA Victor, 1975)
Dedicatoria (Melopea, 1977)
Bermejo (Microfón, 1980) Kultrum (ECM, 1982)
Once Upon a Time – Far Away in the South (ECM, 1985) Volver with Enrico Rava (ECM, 1986) Andina (ECM, 1988)
Argentina (West Wind Latina, 1991)
Mojotoro (ECM, 1991) Rios, with Anthony Cox and David Friedman (veraBra, 1995) Cité de la Musique (ECM, 1996) Kultrum with the Rosamunde Quartett (ECM, 1998) Responsorium (ECM, 2001) Senderos (ECM, 2002) Juan Condori (ECM, 2005)
Trio Tage, with George Gruntz and Thierry Lang (PJL, 2005) Ojos Negros, with Anja Lechner (ECM, 2006) El Encuentro (ECM, 2009) Navidad de Los Andes, with Anja Lechner and Felix Saluzzi (ECM, 2011) El Valle de la Infancia (ECM, 2014)
Argentina’s Daniel Binelli is an internationally renowned composer and master of the bandoneon, acclaimed as the foremost exponent and torchbearer of the music of Astor Piazzolla. In fact, in 1989, he joined Piazzolla´s New Tango Sextet and toured internationally.
Binelli continues to perform extensively in concert and recital around the world, with many great ensembles, including the Philadelphia Orchestra, Atlanta Symphony, Virginia Symphony, Sydney Symphony, Tonhalle Orchestra in Zurich, Montreal Symphony, Ottawa Symphony, Dayton Philharmonic (Ohio) and St. Petersburg Symphony (Russia).
However, not enough people know that Daniel Binelli is a superb composer in his own right, and has created and arranged music for solo instruments, quintet, chamber and symphony orchestras, dance and film music.
Symphony and large ensemble works include Homenaje Al Tango for piano, bandoneon &strings and also for symphony orchestra, Preludio Y Candombe for bandoneon & piano with orchestra, Tres Movimientos Concertantes for bandoneon with orchestra and Concierto No 1 for piano with orchestra.
Chamber works include
* ‘Un Bandoneon En Paris’ for bandoneon, piano & strings
* ‘Tango De Los Cuadros’ for piano, bandoneon, string quartet and also for bandoneon & piano
* ‘Fueyazo’ for bandoneon, string quartet, bass, also for bandoneon, piano, violin, electric guitar, bass
* ‘Metropolis’ for bandoneon & string quartet and also for bandoneon, cello, bass, piano, violin
* ‘Un Tango En La Noche’ for bandoneon & string quartet
* ‘Imagenes De Buenos Aires’ for bandoneon, piano, electric guitar, bass, violin
* ‘Al Pintor Aldo Severi’ bandoneon & piano, also for bandoneon, violin, bass, electric guitar, piano and also for bandoneon, piano, string quintet, to say nothing of the works for solo bandoneon.
He has also composed, among other works, ‘Romance Del Mandolin Y La Guitarra’ for mandolin & guitar and ‘Azul Profundo” for flute and guitar, as well as a fine catalog of works for solo piano.
Some of the many international orchestras, ensembles, Tango companies and soloists that have commissioned and/or performed works from Daniel Binelli include the Zurich Symphony (Switzerland), Edmonton Symphony (Canada), Buffalo Philharmonic (New York), Colorado Music Festival, Montevideo Philharmonic, Colombia Symphony, and Buglisi/Foreman Dance Company (New York) as well as Osvaldo Pugliese Orquesta Tipica (Argentina) and Tango 7 (Switzerland).
He was commissioned by Utah State University for a concerto for piano, bandoneon and orchestra and his Golden Gate Fantasy was funded by a grant from the American Music Center.
Additionally, Binelli has composed music for the Argentine films ‘India Pravile,’ ‘Funes un Gran Amor’ and ‘Tango Baile Nuestro.’
A very good place to hear his music, as well as to experience his superb bandoneon artistry, is to catch his Tango Metropolis ensemble on tour.
* Piazzolla Hoy, with Orquesta Estable del Teatro Colón, Conductor: José Carli (EMI, 1993)
* ¡ Tango !, with Daniel Binelli’s Septet (Dorian, 1994)
* Piazzolla Classics (Tango Sensations) (Milan, 1994)
* Atardecer Antiguo / Bandoneón, with Hugo Romero (Melopea, 1996)
* Piazzollando ao vivo (Kuarup, 1997)
* Borges & Piazzolla (Milan, 1997)
* Milva El tango de Astor Piazzolla, with Quinteto Argentino de Daniel Binelli (King Records, 1998) released in Japan
* Argentine Masters (Testigo, 1998)
* El Bandoneón (Random, 1999)
* El Tango, with Cecilia Rossetto (Black Sun, 1999)
* Encuentros…con el Tango, with Alicia Terzian & el Grupo Encuentros (Dom, 1999)
* La Música Argentina y el Tango, with Eduardo Issac (King Records, 2000) released in Japan
* Rojotango, with Cecilia Rossetto (La Casona)
* Tangazo, with Charles Dutoit y la Orquesta Sinfónica de Montreal (Decca, 2001)
* Imágenes, with Polly Ferman (Romeo Records, 2002)
* Tangos de Buenos Aires, with Linda Lee Thomas (CBC, 2002)
* Tango Metrópolis, with Daniel Binelli’s Quintet (2002)
* Imágenes, with Polly Ferman (EPSA Music, 2002)
* Orquestango, with Polly Ferman & Filarmónica de Montevideo (Sondor, 2003)
* Tango Natural, with César Angeleri (Random, 2003)
Cellist and composer Beata Söderberg was born in 1976 in Linköping, Sweden. As a child, she learned piano from her mother and sang in a children’s choir. At the age of eight, she began to play the cello – the instrument that would soon become her most important means of expression and a constant companion in life.
During her school years, Ms Söderberg divided her time between music, acting and her studies, but after high school she decided to focus on music and attended the Royal College of Music in Stockholm. On receiving her Bachelor’s degree in 1998 she moved to New York City with a full scholarship to study at the Manhattan School of Music where she received her Master of Music degree in 2002.
In New York, she discovered Argentine tango music and dance. Her passion for the genre resulted in various collaborations with New York tango musicians, playing both traditional tango, Astor Piazzolla and Tango Nuevo – the newest form of the genre.
After finishing her studies, Söderberg wanted to try something she had not yet done: to write music. In her music for quintet (cello, piano, bass, bandoneon and drums) she presents a new tango sound, with the cello as the leading voice.
Beatitudes, her début CD, was recorded in the legendary Estudios Ion in Buenos Aires in June 2004 together with some of the greatest tango musicians in the world: Walter Ríos (bandoneon), Juan Esteban Cuacci (piano), Roberto Tormo (bass) and José Luis Colzani (percussion). The disc received outstanding reviews from all major magazines and radio stations in the country, and in April 2005 it was nominated for the Argentinean equivalent of the Grammy Awards in the category “Mejor Album/Artista-Tango Nuevas Formas” at the “Premios Carlos Gardel.”
In November 2005, Söderberg recorded BeSo – her second full-length album of original tango composition, accompanied by her band JusTango: Christian Zarate (piano), Roberto Tormo (bass), Horacio Romo (bandoneon) Jose Luis Colzani (percussion).
Bailata was released in 2008. It is an album dedicated to the devoted crowd of tango dancers around the world.
Bajofondo Tango Club was put together by Rock en español musician and producer Gustavo Santaolalla, winner of two-time Academy Awards and Golden Globe-winning composer of Brokeback Mountain and Babel. It is a collective of artists and musicians creating an array of music based on the fusion of electronica (dub, house, drum&bass) with the traditional sounds of tango.
Bajofondo Tango Club quickly caused a stir in Argentina’s music underground and the world at large. The debut album, Bajofondo Tango Club, certified platinum in Argentina soon after its release in 2003, won the prestigious Premio Gardel for Best Electronica Album and a Latin Grammy as Best Pop Instrumental Album.
After sold-out performances in Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, the collective was invited to tour Europe in July 2004 with unforgettable performances at Roskilde Festival (Denmark), across Eastern Europe, Spain, London (UK) and beyond. What began as a music project became an amazing touring group of musicians, DJs and visuals.
The members of Bajofondo Tango Club come from the worlds of tango and electronic music. The original members were: Gustavo Santaolalla (Argentina), Juan Campodonico (Uruguay), Marcelo Castelli (Uruguay), Emilio Kauderer (Argentina), Juan Blas (Argentina), Didi Gutman (Argentina), Luciano Supervielle (Uruguay), Jorge Drexler (Uruguay), Adrian Iaies (Argentina), Pablo Mainetti (Argentina) and Javier Casalla (Argentina).
The band shortened the name to Bajofondo after they felt their musical genre had broadened. As on their earlier recordings, their Mar Dulce album sees Bajofondo’s musicians lead listeners through a sensual soundscape of tango, trip-hop, drum & bass and pop elements that redefine the essence of tango for the 21st century. Mar Dulce features guest performances by Elvis Costello, Nelly Furtado, Julieta Venegas, Gustavo Cerati, Ryota Komatsu, La Mala Rodriguez, Santullo, Juan Subira and the final recorded performance by legendary Uruguayan tango diva Lagrima Rios.
“With Bajofondo,” says Santaolalla, “we don’t like the label ‘electronic tango’ because we try to make a contemporary music of Rio de la Plata (the river that forms part of the border between Argentina and Uruguay) music from Argentina, from Uruguay. Obviously, if you want to do music that comes from there or represents that part of the world tango is going to be part of it – but, in our case, so is rock ‘n’ roll, electronica and hip hop. Hopefully a new language, not pure tango.”
On Mar Dulce, Bajofondo was comprised of Gustavo Santaolalla on guitar, percussion, and vocals; Juan Campodónico on programming, beats, samples and guitar; Luciano Supervielle on piano, keyboards and scratch; Javier Casalla on violin; Martín Ferrés on bandoneon; Gabriel Casacuberta on upright bass and electric bass; Adrián Sosa on drums; and Verónica Loza as VJ and on vocals.
Astor Pantaleón Piazzolla was born in the coastal city of Mar Del Plata, Argentina, in March of 1921. His parents were immigrants from southern Italy. Astor Piazzolla’s father, Vicente “Nonino” Piazzolla, was a storekeeper and craftsman. His mother, Asunta Mainetti, was a hairdresser and seamstress.
When he was three years old, he moved to New York City with his father. He lived there between 1924 and 1937, with a brief return to Mar del Plata in 1930. At age 9, his father gave him a bandoneon, which he had bought at a pawn shop for 19 dollars, as a birthday present. His father missed Argentina and its memorable tangos so he was interested in having his son learn how to play this popular musical style.
The young Astor Piazzolla learned how to play the bandoneon by himself, while he was living in the Bronx, in New York City. At the time, he played harmonica and his favorite musical genre was jazz. One of his neighbors, Hungarian pianist Bela Wilda (a disciple of Rachmaninov), introduced him to the music of Bach. Piazzolla liked that music so much that he tried to play with the bandoneon. Since he did not know how to read music, Wilda taught him to how to read and compose music. During the next four years, the only music Piazzolla played was classical music.
He was only thirteen years old when Carlos Gardel, the great Argentine tango singer and composer, heard him in New York and asked him to play in several recordings for his movie “El Día Que Me Quieras.” Gardel was so impressed with Piazzolla’s performance that he offered him the opportunity of touring with him throughout South America. Piazzolla rejected the offer and in 1937 he returned to Buenos Aires.
At 18, Piazzolla started playing the accordion and worked as an arranger for Anibal Troilo’s orchestra. In 1940 he composed a piece for Arthur Rubinstein, who was in Buenos Aires on tour. Rubinstein recognized Piazzolla’s talent and encouraged him to study composition with Alberto Ginastera, a famous Argentine classical music composer. Piazzolla studied eight years with Alberto Ginastera.
It was in 1946 when Piazzolla formed his own group to express his radical musical ideas, while at the same time he composed for the Buenos Aires Philharmonic Orchestra. Astor Piazzolla started an important revolution in the world of tango between 1946 and 1948, by taking it from the dance floors to the concert halls.
In 1950 Piazzolla left the orchestra to dedicate himself exclusively to composing. He started to win numerous composition awards in Argentina, the United States and France, where he was granted a scholarship to study with Nadia Boulanger. It was Boulanger who advised Piazzolla not to abandon his folk music roots. After returning from France, Piazzolla formed the famous Octeto (Octect) that revolutionized the music scene in Buenos Aires.
In 1956 he started performing tango concerts, developing a new perspective based in traditional tango. His concept was that tango is music to be listened to, not just music for dancing. This “Tango Nuevo” (New Tango) is a unique mix of traditional tango and the classical tradition. Astor Piazzolla took a folk music genre and created a complex interaction with classical music and jazz, creating forms such as contrapunto (counterpoint), fuga (fugue), and improvisation.
Astor Piazzolla composed soundtracks for movies, operas, and music for television. He recorded over 40 albums and traveled throughout the globe, playing at some of the most important performing arts centers in the world.
Astor Piazzolla suffered a brain hemorrhage in Paris in 1990. He never recovered and died in Buenos Aires on July 4th of 1992.
In 2000 Oxford University Press published Astor Piazzolla, his Life and Music. The book was translated to Spanish and published in 2002 by El Ateneo de Buenos Aires. In 2003 Amadeus Press published A Memoir by journalist Natalio Gorin, who was Astor Piazzola’s friend for nearly two decades.
Argentine pianist Adrian Iaies’ unique style can best be described as a fusion of traditional tango and contemporary jazz. In 2000 he was nominated for a Latin Grammy in the jazz category for his album Las Tardecitas de Minton’s (Acqua Records). Throughout his extensive career he has toured extensively on both sides of the Atlantic having shared the stage with artists such as Ron Carter, Lee Konitz, Michael Brecker, Dave Holland, John Patitucci, Chucho Valdes, and Dino Saluzzi.
In November 2000, Iaies recorded a new solo record in Barcelona called Tango Reflections which was released worldwide in April, 2001. He has toured extensively in promotion of this release including dates in the Spanish Jazz Festival, La Semana de Jazz Latino de Madrid, the Miami Film Festival, and the Festival Internacional de los 7 Lagos in Argentina.
Adriana Varela – Y piano (Sony Music Argentina, 2014)
An intimate album featuring exclusive vocals and piano album by acclaimed Argentine tango singer Adriana Varela. Here, she sings a set of tango classics with her distinctive deep and low pitched voice accompanied by Marcelo Macri on piano.
Beatriz Adriana Lichinchi is better known as Adriana Varela or her nickname La Gata (the cat). Currently, she is one of the leading Argentine tango singers.
Adriana Varela Y piano includes songs recorded live at three different concerts in Punta del Este, Uruguay.
Adriana Varela Y piano showcases the talent and passionate delivery of one of today’s greatest tango singers.
Inmigrantes (the Spanish word for immigrants) is the new album by Argentine pianist and composer Lalo Zanelli. He’s currently based in Paris, where he put together a band called Ombu featuring other Argentine musicians as well as French artists. The music on Inmigrantes is a dazzling mix of jazz, Argentine tango and folk music, and rock.
The lineup includes Lalo Zanelli on piano; Bruno Bongarçon on guitar; Pablo Gignoli on bandoneon; Lysandre Donoso on bandoneon; Fabrizio Fenoglietto on bass; and Javier Estrella on drums and bombo. Guests: Minino Garay on drums; Leandro Guffanti on saxophone; Catia Wernec on vocals; Eddy Tomassi on percussion; and Julie Gros on cello.
Ombu is a gifted band that impresses with its captivating amalgam of tango and progressive jazz.
The Iberoamerican Music Expo 2016 turned out to be a great opportunity to catch up with Portuguese music and some of the album releases from neighboring Spain and Latin America.
The EXIB trade show area was smaller than WOMEX, but there was a pretty good representation of booking agencies, festivals, institutions and record labels/producers.
One of the most fascinating exhibitors was Tradisom Producoes Culturais. This record company puts together fabulous boxed sets, books with CD, hard cover CDs, and regular CDs focusing on traditional and contemporary Portuguese folk music. Some of the goodies exhibited included a mammoth hard cover 552-page book accompanied by 4 CDs titled A Origem fo Fado (the origin of fado).
Tradisom also had a boxed set with the entre discography by one of the greatest Portuguese folk bands in the late 20th century, Brigada Victor Jara. There were also fado boxed sets, a Julio Pereira (cavaquinho master) hard cover book+CD and much more. This label is a goldmine for Portuguese music.
Several of the exhibitors represented some of the artists that showcased throughout EXIB 2016. I managed to get a pretty decent amount of CDs and memory sticks with press kits so we will be reviewing some of this material in the next weeks.
In this era of digital everything, it was great to see a new print magazine made in London. La Tundra is a free Spanish language culture and arts magazine published and designed by Silvia Demetilla. The magazine features CD and book reviews, the theater scene, urban radar (reviews of recommended places in London neighborhoods), urban spaces, travel articles, interviews and environmental consciousness reports.
Iberoamerica Musical is the umbrella organization that supports EXIB. The organization runs several other initiatives such as the upcoming Revista Digital Pura Mestiza, a quarterly magazine targeting Ibero-American music industry professionals.
Three influential music journalists, Gabriel Plaza (Argentina), Enrique Blanc (Mexico), and Humphrey Inzillo (Argentina) gave a presentation about the network of Ibero-American music journalists.
Inzillo, Plaza and Blanc also introduced some of the most interesting sounds coming from Latin America, like various forms of cumbia, including electronic cumbia produced by companies like tropical futurism label ZZK Records; the new tango scene in Argentina, featuring new tango orchestras and bands with a new attitude such as Orquesta Típica Fernández Fierro, El Arranque, Buenos Aires Negro, Melingo and La Chicana.
Enrique Blanc explained that Mexico has four main music production areas: Mexico City, Tijuana, Monterrey and Guadalajara. Mexico City is a huge city that produces all music genres; Tijuana has an interesting electronic scene and is heavily influenced by its northern neighbor, the USA; Monterrey (near Laredo and Brownsville in Texas) focuses on conjunto and norteño sounds.
Guadalajara, meanwhile, is considered the cultural capital of Mexico. Enrique introduced Guadalajara acts like indie rock band Porter, showcasing their video Huitzil; and Hoppo! a new band featuring Chilean and Mexican artists, including Café Tacvba vocalist Rubén Albarrán.
Festival programmers met for the 2nd Encounter of Ibero-American Music Festivals. The first session was a networking and strategizing section open to festivals only. The second part was open to artist managers and agents as well as musicians.
Brazilian wind instrument virtuoso Carlos Malta gave a masterclass and conference at Evora University, and then there were numerous micro-conferences presenting books, events, new media platforms, music guides and more within the EXIB trade show space. Lastly, the expo featured an Ibero-American music documentary series.
My impression this year is that EXIB has grown. Naturally, this year the Portuguese presence was much larger, which made the event very attractive for those unfamiliar with the Portuguese music scene. I also saw some media colleagues from beyond Ibero America: musician and writer Andrew Cronshaw (UK), Simon Broughton of Songlines magazine (UK) and Drago Vovk from Radio Sraka in Slovenia.
Plans for EXIB 2017 have not been finalized yet, but it looks like Cordoba in Spain might be the next location for this unique music expo.